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Raedykes, Roman camp 600m north east of South Raedykes

A Scheduled Monument in Stonehaven and Lower Deeside, Aberdeenshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 57.0028 / 57°0'9"N

Longitude: -2.2621 / 2°15'43"W

OS Eastings: 384178

OS Northings: 790210

OS Grid: NO841902

Mapcode National: GBR XG.H4ST

Mapcode Global: WH9RF.772Y

Entry Name: Raedykes, Roman camp 600m NE of South Raedykes

Scheduled Date: 26 December 1972

Last Amended: 30 October 2013

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Source ID: SM1016

Schedule Class: Cultural

Category: Roman: camp

Location: Fetteresso

County: Aberdeenshire

Electoral Ward: Stonehaven and Lower Deeside

Traditional County: Kincardineshire

Description

The monument is the remains of a large Roman camp, built probably in the late first century AD during the early Roman occupation of NE Scotland, although construction during a later Roman campaign cannot be ruled out. It is visible as earthworks defining well-preserved sections of the rampart and defensive ditch. The rampart and ditch are visible on all four sides of the camp, except in the NW corner. The camp lies between 155m and 192m above sea level and includes the summit of Garrison Hill, which offers views down Glen Ury to the coast 5km to the SE at Stonehaven. The monument was first scheduled in 1972, but the documents did not meet modern standards; the present amendment rectifies this.

The camp measures about 700m NNW-SSE by 960m transversely and encloses an area of about 38.9 ha. The rampart measures up to 5m in width and stands 0.8m in height, with the ditch measuring up to 4.3m wide and 1.3m deep. Four of the camp's original six tituli (mounds of earth that act as defences in front of the gates) survive as low mounds, with ditches surrounding the external facing. The camp is irregular in plan with an elongated NE corner, its shape being largely dictated by the local topography.

The scheduled area is irregular on plan, to include the remains described above and an area around them within which evidence relating to the monument's construction, use and abandonment may survive, as shown in red on the accompanying map. The scheduled area specifically excludes the above-ground elements of all post-and-wire fences, telegraph poles, upstanding buildings, modern boundary walls and the top 300mm of modern trackways and road surfaces. The scheduled area excludes Broomhill Cottage and its yard and garden ground.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Statement of Scheduling

The monument is of national importance because of its significant potential to contribute to our understanding of Roman camps, including their date, construction, use and internal layout. The Roman camp at Raedykes is one of very few examples where almost the entire circuit is visible as an upstanding earthwork. Artefacts recovered from the site suggest very high potential for buried remains that can enhance our understanding of the Roman army on campaign. Spatial analysis of Roman temporary camps and the Roman roads that connect them can inform our understanding of Roman military strategy and the impact of the Roman presence on the local Iron-Age landscape of Scotland. Some researchers have suggested that this camp was associated with Agricola's victory at the battle of Mons Graupius in AD 84 as recounted by Tacitus, who refers to a nearby camp and purports to give details of the size of the Roman forces and their tactics. If this monument was lost or damaged, our understanding of the construction and use of temporary camps by the Roman army and our knowledge of Roman military structure and logistics would be diminished.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Sources

Bibliography

RCAHMS records the monument as NO89SW 2: Raedykes, Roman Temporary camp.

The Aberdeenshire Sites and Monuments Record, records the monument as NO89SW0002.

References

Crawford, O G S 1949, Topography of Roman Scotland north of the Antonine Wall, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hanson, W S and Maxwell, G S 1983, Rome's north west frontier: the Antonine Wall. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Hanson, W S 1987, Agricola and the Conquest of the North. London: Batsford.

Macdonald, G 1916, 'The Roman camps at Raedykes and Glenmailen', Proc Soc Antiq Scot, 50,317-359.

Maxwell, G 1990, A Battle Lost: Romans and Caledonians at Mons Graupius, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

St Joseph, J K 1958, 'Air reconnaissance in Britain, 1955-7', J Roman Stud, 48, 86-101.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

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