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Medieval boundary stone, 220m SSE of Callaly Crag

A Scheduled Monument in Callaly, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.3755 / 55°22'31"N

Longitude: -1.9024 / 1°54'8"W

OS Eastings: 406279.578015

OS Northings: 609058.69468

OS Grid: NU062090

Mapcode National: GBR H648.XV

Mapcode Global: WHB0J.R48X

Entry Name: Medieval boundary stone, 220m SSE of Callaly Crag

Scheduled Date: 4 February 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011092

English Heritage Legacy ID: 20988

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Callaly

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Whittingham and Edlingham with Bolton Chapel

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes a decorated boundary stone of medieval date adjacent to
Old Thrunton Woods and abutted on the north by a dry stone wall. The
irregularly cut stone of local grey/brown limestone is 0.3m thick and measures
1.7m high by 0.4m across. On its north face there is a carving of a splayed
armed cross; the area around the cross has been pecked out to a depth of
20-30mm. The form of the cross indicates a 12th or 13th century date. This
stone, along with three others, are thought to mark the limits of an area of
land at Thrunton which was donated to Brinkburn Priory in the mid 13th
century. On such an area of featureless, but well used, moorland a form of
artificial boundary marker may have been required.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Boundary stones have a long history of use in the definition of the extent of
land holdings, especially in places where the boundary was most contentious or
less well defined by other features. The church was one of the earliest users
of single marker stones to delineate the extent of their holdings. The very
earliest examples, dating from the 6th and 7th centuries AD, were used to
define sanctified areas such as the extent of graveyards or the bounds of a
monastic site. Subsequently in the medieval period they were used to mark more
extensive ecclesiastical land holdings. They are important monuments which
often provide our only source of information about past territorial divisions
of the landscape. Boundary stones were once more common than they are today
and are frequently referred to in medieval and post medieval documents, but
most were simple and undecorated. Single, decorated boundary stones survive
today in certain areas, but groups of well preserved decorated stones like
those on Callaly Moor, designed to be closely set along a boundary are rare.
The group of stones on Callaly Moor date from between AD 1050 and AD 1250 and
are the only known group in Northumberland, paralleled elsewhere by only three
examples in Yorkshire, Humberside and Lincolnshire, marking ecclesiastical
sanctuaries.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Nieke, M R, Callally Moor Field Survey, (1987), 1
Other
Stocker, D, (1992)

Source: Historic England

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