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Medieval boundary stone, 420m SSE of Callaly Crag

A Scheduled Monument in Callaly, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.3734 / 55°22'24"N

Longitude: -1.9018 / 1°54'6"W

OS Eastings: 406319.593432

OS Northings: 608830.106926

OS Grid: NU063088

Mapcode National: GBR H659.1L

Mapcode Global: WHB0J.R6KH

Entry Name: Medieval boundary stone, 420m SSE of Callaly Crag

Scheduled Date: 4 February 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011091

English Heritage Legacy ID: 20987

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Callaly

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Whittingham and Edlingham with Bolton Chapel

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes a decorated boundary stone of medieval date situated on
the corner of Old Thrunton Woods; it is one of a group of four in the area.
The stone, composed of local grey/brown limestone, is 0.2m thick and measures
1.5m high by 0.4m across. On the west face there is a carving of a splayed
armed cross and on the eastern face there is a deeply incised crude straight
armed cross. The form of both crosses indicates that they date to the 11th or
12th centuries AD. This stone, along with three others, is thought to mark
the limits of an area of land at Thrunton which was donated to Brinkburn
Priory in the mid 13th century. On such an area of featureless, but well used,
moorland some form of artificial boundary marker may have been required.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Boundary stones have a long history of use in the definition of the extent of
land holdings, especially in places where the boundary was most contentious or
less well defined by other features. The church was one of the earliest users
of single marker stones to delineate the extent of their holdings. The very
earliest examples, dating from the 6th and 7th centuries AD, were used to
define sanctified areas such as the extent of graveyards or the bounds of a
monastic site. Subsequently in the medieval period they were used to mark more
extensive ecclesiastical holdings. They are important monuments which often
provide our only source of information about past territorial divisions of the
landscape. Boundary stones were once more common than they are today and are
frequently referred to in medieval and post medieval documents, but most were
simple and undecorated. Single decorated boundary stones survive today in
certain areas, but groups of well preserved decorated stones like those on
Callaly Moor, designed to be closely set along a boundary are rare. The group
of stones on Callaly Moor date from between AD 1050 and AD 1250 and are the
only known group in Northumberland, paralleled elsewhere by only three
examples in Yorkshire, Humberside and Lincolnshire, marking ecclesiastical
sanctuaries.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Nieke, M R, Callally Moor Field Survey, (1987), 1
Other
Stocker, D, (1992)

Source: Historic England

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