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Medieval settlement on the north western slopes of Cales Dale, 490m north west of Cales Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Monyash, Derbyshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.1801 / 53°10'48"N

Longitude: -1.7536 / 1°45'13"W

OS Eastings: 416561.898137

OS Northings: 364803.299457

OS Grid: SK165648

Mapcode National: GBR 46R.MGK

Mapcode Global: WHCDD.1B6F

Entry Name: Medieval settlement on the north western slopes of Cales Dale, 490m north west of Cales Farm

Scheduled Date: 15 April 2004

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1021245

English Heritage Legacy ID: 33887

County: Derbyshire

Civil Parish: Monyash

Traditional County: Derbyshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Derbyshire

Church of England Parish: Monyash St Leonard

Church of England Diocese: Derby

Details

The monument includes the earthwork remains of a medieval settlement in
pastureland on the north western slopes of Cales Dale, 490m north west of
Cales Farm. The settlement is closely associated with the Cistercian grange
at One Ash, an outlier of the manor of Bakewell, which appears in the
Domesday survey of 1086. Bakewell was a royal manor at this date. One Ash
Grange is now a farm, but in the late 12th century was a grange for the
Cistercian house of Roche Abbey. Although no remains of the medieval grange
survive at the site of the farm, it is believed that the remains of the
settlement in Cales Dale are the site of a medieval village which was closely
tied to the grange. Two fragments of a stone cross head, dating from the 10th
or 11th century have been found in the rubble backfill of a lead mine shaft
about 200m south west of the settlement. These are now held in the museum at
Buxton.

The remains comprise the foundations of one substantial building, measuring
20m by 12m, three smaller buildings, and the collapsed remains of field walls
and smaller enclosures. The larger building appears to have an apsidal west
end, perhaps a porch, and may have been an early medieval church and the
original location of the stone cross. The larger building lies in the south
eastern corner of the enclosed part of the site. The remains of three smaller
buildings are evident in the western half of this enclosure.

A further set of earthwork remains, whose purpose is uncertain, lie outside
the enclosure to the north. These remains have been disturbed and partly
destroyed by later lead mining activity and stone quarrying. In the north
eastern corner of the field which now encloses the bulk of the remains there
is a ruined stock pound measuring 5m by 5m which was contemporary with the
enclosure walls.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity
in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains
needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been
divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive
mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided
into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have
gradually evolved during the last 1500 years or more.
This monument lies in the Pennine Slope sub-Province of the Central Province,
which embraces the varied scarp and vale topography flanking the higher
portions of the southern Pennines, where narrow escarpments of limestone and
sandstone and softer shale vales give a distinct north-south grain to the
landscape. Dispersed settlement increases from extremely low to medium
densities in the south east of the sub-Province to high densities at the north
west. With the exception of Sherwood Forest, the region is well stocked with
nucleated settlements, some old but others the result of 18th- and 19th-
century industrial developments. Anglo-Saxon `wood' names are common among
placenames, and the area was well wooded in 1086.
The Millstone Grit Scarps local region is an undulating terrain of north to
south sandstone ridges separated by vales. It is characterised by village
settlements, with low densities of scattered dwellings and farmsteads between
them. Many of the villages have, however, grown in recent centuries, and the
medieval settlement pattern was of hamlets and farmsteads set in a woodland
landscape.

Medieval villages were organised agricultural communities sited at the centre
of a parish or township that shared resources such as arable land, meadow and
woodland. Village plans varied enormously but, when they survive as
earthworks, distinguishing features include trackways, platforms on which
stood houses and barns, enclosed crofts and small enclosed paddocks.

The medieval settlement on the north western slopes of Cales Dale is a rare
survival of an upland medieval settlement in the Peak District. Although the
site has been disturbed by lead mining and stone quarrying on a small scale
during the last few centuries, much remains of the stone footings of at least
four buildings, including a possible early medieval church. In addition, it
is believed that the site can be linked with the known and well documented
medieval monastic grange of One Ash and is probably the site of the village
of One Ash.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hart, CR, North Derbyshire Archaeological Survey to AD 1500, (1981), 155
Morgan, P, Domesday Book Derbyshire, (1978), 272.d

Source: Historic England

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