Ancient Monuments

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Round 330m south east of Penhale

A Scheduled Monument in Ladock, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.3211 / 50°19'15"N

Longitude: -4.9726 / 4°58'21"W

OS Eastings: 188493.725585

OS Northings: 51022.437037

OS Grid: SW884510

Mapcode National: GBR ZK.RYWN

Mapcode Global: FRA 08G5.YCF

Entry Name: Round 330m south east of Penhale

Scheduled Date: 24 July 2002

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020752

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32963

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Ladock

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Ladock

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The monument includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round,
situated on top of a hill west of Ladock.
The round is oval in plan, measuring approximately 90m north east-south
west by 75m north west-south east overall. It has an enclosing rampart of
earth and stone, with an external ditch. Around the south side the rampart
is partly modified and incorporated in a later field boundary bank, but
remains up to 4.5m wide and 3m high. On the north side, the rampart has
been reduced by ploughing but forms an earthwork around 5m wide with an
outward scarp up to 0.3m high, and slight traces of an internal face. The
external ditch is partly buried but aerial photographs show it running
around the southern half of the round, and remains of it are visible on
the ground on the north east side in the form of a depression up to 6m
wide and 0.2m deep. By analogy with similar sites elsewhere, the ditch
will have continued around the whole of the rampart and will survive as a
buried feature for its entire length. The interior of the round is fairly
All modern fencing, and the water tank and associated pipe and fittings,
are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types
dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually
circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch,
with one entrance breaking the circuit.
Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or
cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf
or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner
edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies,
pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been
recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the
domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated
with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming
an additional enclosure.
Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of
farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th
century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in
areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon
and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most
recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs.
Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement
and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west
England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally
be considered to be of national importance.

Despite modification of parts of its enclosing bank and partial filling or
silting of its external ditch, the round 300m south east of Penhale
survives well. The underlying old land surface, and remains of any
structures or other deposits associated with this and with the upstanding
earthworks and ditch, will also survive.

Source: Historic England


Dyer, C, Cornwall Mapping Programme, (1999)
MS at RIC library, Truro, Henderson, C, Parochial Antiquities, Parochial Antiquities, (1917)
SW 85 SE 11, Fletcher, MJ, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1970)
Title: Ladock Tithe Apportionment Map
Source Date: 1840
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1880

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1907

Source: Historic England

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