Ancient Monuments

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Round 500m west of Parkengear Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Probus, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.2871 / 50°17'13"N

Longitude: -4.9505 / 4°57'1"W

OS Eastings: 189911.716483

OS Northings: 47180.445787

OS Grid: SW899471

Mapcode National: GBR ZM.54VG

Mapcode Global: FRA 08J8.M5T

Entry Name: Round 500m west of Parkengear Farm

Scheduled Date: 3 September 2002

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020796

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32964

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Probus

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Probus

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The scheduling includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round, situated
on a moderate south west slope, south of Probus.
The round is sub-circular in plan, measuring approximately 110m across. It
has a single enclosing bank of earth and small stones which, around the
north side, has been modified to function as a field boundary. The west
half of this is a scarp, around 2.8m wide and up to 3.3m high externally,
with post-medieval style stone revetment in places. To the east the bank
takes the form of a hedge bank 2m wide and 1m high with some stone facing.
Around the south side the enclosing bank is visible as an earthwork,
spread by cultivation to a width of 10m-15m, and up to around 0.8m high
outside, and 0.3m inside.
An external ditch surrounding the bank, partly silted or filled up,
appears on aerial photographs. It can also be seen on the ground around
the north and on the south east sides as a curving hollow up to 9m wide
and 0.4m deep. The interior of the round generally slopes west, following
the natural gradient, but it is raised and slightly concave.
This site is associated with other rounds nearby, some of which are the
subject of separate schedulings.
The modern water trough, all fencing, and the gate and gate fittings, are
excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types
dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually
circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch,
with one entrance breaking the circuit.
Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or
cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf
or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner
edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies,
pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been
recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the
domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated
with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming
an additional enclosure.
Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of
farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th
century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in
areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon
and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most
recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs.
Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement
and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west
England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally
be considered to be of national importance.

Despite limited reduction and modification of its enclosing bank, and
partial filling or silting of its external ditch, the round 500m west of
Parkengear Farm survives well. The underlying old land surface, and
remains of any structures or other deposits associated with this and with
the upstanding earthworks and ditch, will also survive. The association
with similar enclosures nearby will contribute to our understanding of the
social and economic organisation of the farming landscape of this region
in the later prehistoric to Roman periods.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Gover, J E B, The Place-Names of Cornwall, (1948), 478
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 50, 175
Hitchens, F, Drew, S, 'A History of Cornwall' in A History of Cornwall, , Vol. 2, (1824), 569
Dyer, CA, Cornwall Mapping Project, (1999)
PRN 22537, Cornwall SMR, (1997)
Title: Cornwall Mapping Project
Source Date: 1996

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1880

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1908

Title: Probus Tithe Apportionment
Source Date: 1840

Source: Historic England

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