Ancient Monuments

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Settlement, 53m north west of Hawthorn Lodge

A Scheduled Monument in Jedburgh and District, Scottish Borders

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Latitude: 55.57 / 55°34'12"N

Longitude: -2.6534 / 2°39'12"W

OS Eastings: 358894

OS Northings: 630901

OS Grid: NT588309

Mapcode National: GBR 94X1.B3

Mapcode Global: WH8Y2.68Q8

Entry Name: Settlement, 53m NW of Hawthorn Lodge

Scheduled Date: 3 November 2020

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Source ID: SM13728

Schedule Class: Cultural

Category: Prehistoric domestic and defensive: settlement

Location: St Boswells

County: Scottish Borders

Electoral Ward: Jedburgh and District

Traditional County: Roxburghshire


The monument is the buried remains of a settlement enclosure probably dating to the Iron Age between around 400BC to 200AD. The monument is visible as cropmarks recorded on oblique aerial photographs. It is rectangular on plan with rounded corners and an entrance on the south-east side. It occupies an elevated location at around 100m above sea level above the West Burn. The land slopes gently away to the northeast and southeast.

The enclosure measures around 87m northwest-southeast by 51m within ditches up to around 5m wide. There is a clear entrance on the southeast side, either side of which appears to be slightly offset from each other. The entrance measures around 7.5m wide and archaeological excavations suggest this was a complex entrance.

The scheduled area is irregular. It includes the remains described above and an area around within which evidence relating to the monument's construction, use and abandonment is expected to survive, as shown in red on the accompanying map. The top 300mm of the hardstanding outwith the agricultural field are specifically excluded to allow for maintenance and upkeep, the above ground elements of all modern land boundaries are also excluded.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Statement of Scheduling

The national importance of the monument is demonstrated in the following way(s) (see Designations Policy and Selection Guidance, Annex 1, para 17):

a.  The monument is of national importance because it makes a significant contribution to our understanding or appreciation of the past, or has the potential to do so, as a likely example of an Iron Age settlement enclosure. It adds to our understanding of prehistoric society in eastern Scotland and the function, use and development of forts and other enclosed settlements of this period.

b.  The monument retains physical attributes which make a significant contribution to our understanding or appreciation of the past. The plan of the monument is clear and understandable through the cropmark evidence and archaeological evaluation has shown that there is significant potential for the survival of buried archaeological deposits. The monument can significantly add to our understanding of domestic settlement, agriculture and economy during the Iron Age. Additionally, the archaeological remains indicated by the cropmarks are likely to hold evidence for the construction, use and abandonment of the settlement.

c.  The monument is a rare example of a rectilinear Iron Age settlement in the Scottish Borders area. This type of monument is more common further north on the East Lothian plain or to the south in Northumberland. The monument forms part of a small group which follow the line of the Roman road Dere Street through the central Borders.

d.  The monument is a particularly good example of a rectilinear Iron Age settlement and is therefore an important representative of this monument type.

e.  The monument has research potential which could significantly contribute to our understanding or appreciation of the past. Its enclosure ditches could provide material for carbon dating which when compared with similar monuments could contribute to a better understanding of the chronological development of settlement during this period of Scottish prehistory. Additionally, environmental material surviving within these buried features, particularly the ditches, could also provide information on diet, agricultural practice, local environment and social status of the occupants as well as contemporary economy and society.

f.  The monument makes a significant contribution our understanding of the historic landscape by its location and its relationship to other contemporary monuments in the surrounding area. It also has the potential to increase our understanding of settlement hierarchy and changing settlement patterns in the Scottish Borders

Assessment of Cultural Significance

This statement of national importance has been informed by the following assessment of cultural significance:

Intrinsic characteristics (how the remains of a site or place contribute to our knowledge of the past)

This monument is a settlement enclosure has been recorded as cropmarks on oblique aerial photographs and survives as buried deposits below the ploughsoil. It was recorded once in 1995. Limited opportunity to photograph the site, along with ground and crop conditions help to explain why it has not been photographed from the air again. Although no features survive above ground, the overall plan of the monument is clear and understandable. The monument measures around 87m northwest-southeast by 51m within ditches up to around 5m wide. All four sides of the enclosure are visible on the aerial photographs, although the southeastern corner is under the forecourt of a modern car dealership. No internal features are visible on any of the available aerial photographs.

Limited excavations took place at this monument in 2017. These excavations showed that the enclosure ditch survived up to 1.7m deep in places. Post holes and post slots were found in the vicinity of the gate which may suggest that the settlement had an elaborate gate. No internal features were noted, however, the excavation covered less than 10% of the monument so it is highly likely that features survive.

Excavations of similar enclosures elsewhere (e.g. Carronbridge (scheduled monument number 4093; Canmore ID 65197), Knowes (scheduled monument number 4070; Canmore ID 57720), East and West Brunton in Northumberland) indicate they were built and in use between around 400BC and 200AD. They represent enclosed settlements. These excavations have revealed internal features such as roundhouses and yards, not all of which were visible though cropmarking, as well as complex sequences of development.

Archaeological evaluation has shown that there is good potential for the survival of archaeological features and deposits, including occupation and abandonment debris, artefacts and environmental remains such as charcoal or pollen within the enclosure and within the ditches. This monument has the potential to add to our understanding of settlement, land-use and environment during the Iron Age. It has the potential to provide information about the economy, diet and social status of the occupants, as well as the structure of contemporary society and economy. Study of the monument's form and construction techniques compared with other settlement enclosures would enhance our understanding of the development sequence of this site and of Iron Age settlements in general.

Contextual characteristics (how a site or place relates to its surroundings and/or to our existing knowledge of the past)

Rectilinear settlement enclosures are found across the east and south of Scotland, as well as the north of England. Around ten similar settlement enclosures have been identified in the Scottish Borders, seven of them are in the north-south corridor of the Roman road Dere Street which runs some 350m to the southwest of this monument.

In form the enclosure at Hawthorn Lodge can be compared to other rectilinear settlements in along this routeway through the Scottish Borders, which are typically defined by ditches seldom wider than two metres, have rounded corners and are rarely strictly rectangular. The eastern entrance is, however, unusual but likely represents the presence of an elaborate gateway. Gateways are often uncovered during the excavation of rectilinear settlements and have been identified, for example, at Carronbridge (scheduled monument number 4093; Canmore ID 65197), Rispain Camp (scheduled monument number 90248; Canmore ID 63122) and Coxhoe West House in County Durham (Haselgrove 1982). However, they are often relatively simple constructions. The settlement excavated at Burradon in Northumberland offers the closest parallel to this site (Jobey 1970). Here, remains of timber fencing was uncovered between the out-turned ditches of the entrance and interpreted as the remains of a substantial gateway. The example at Hawthorn Lodge, therefore, is unusual in having indications of an elaborate gateway. Such an entrance may indicate a greater regard for display. The monument is therefore a regionally rare example of a type found more commonly in the north and east of the country.

Rectilinear settlement enclosures tend not to occupy defensive or highly dominant locations. The settlement at Hawthorn Lodge is positioned on a gentle southeast facing slope. It has open views towards the Eildon Hills to the north, and also to east and west, restricted only by modern boundaries such as hedges. To the south lies the village of St Boswells. The enclosure would have been prominent feature within its local area.

The monument therefore has the potential to enhance and broaden our understanding of the nature and development of later prehistoric settlement, both in the east of Scotland and more widely. It can add to our knowledge of social status settlement hierarchy and changing settlement patterns, as well as important connections between communities during the Iron Age.

Associative characteristics (how a site or place relates to people, events, and/or historic and social movements)

There are no known associative characteristics that contribute to this monument's national importance.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland



Historic Environment Scotland reference number CANMORE ID 147336 (accessed on 18/05/2020).

Ferrell, Gillian (1992) Settlement and society in the later prehistory of North-East England, Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: (accessed on 14/02/2018)

Hanson, W.S. and Macinnes, L. (1991) The archaeology of the Scottish Lowlands: problems and potential. In Hanson, W.S. and Slater, E.A. (eds) Scottish archaeology: new perceptions. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press. pp. 153-66.

Hodgson, N. McKelvey, J. and Muncaster, W. (2012) The Iron Age on the Northumberland coastal plain. Excavations in advance of development 2002-2010. Newcastle Upon Tyne.

Haselgrove, C.C. (1982) An Iron Age settlement at West House, Coxhoe, County Durham. Archaeologia Aeliana, 5(10), p25-51.

Haselgrove, C. (2009) The Traprain Law Environs Project. Field work and excavations 2000-2004. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: Edinburgh.

Jobey, G. (1970) An Iron Age settlement and homestead at Burradon, Northumberland. Archaeologia Aeliana, 4(XLVII). p. 51-95.

Johnston, D.A. (1994) Carronbridge, Dumfries and Galloway: the excavation of Bronze Age cremations, Iron Age settlements and a Roman camp. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 124. p233-291.

Savory, G (2017) Border Toyota Garage, St Boswells, Scottish Borders. Archaeological Evaluation. Data Structure Report No. 3596. CFA Archaeology Ltd.


Source: Historic Environment Scotland

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