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Offa's Dyke: section known as Buttington Tump, 100m west of Buttington Lodge

A Scheduled Monument in Tidenham, Gloucestershire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.6348 / 51°38'5"N

Longitude: -2.6557 / 2°39'20"W

OS Eastings: 354715.252666

OS Northings: 193096.607973

OS Grid: ST547930

Mapcode National: GBR JN.86NY

Mapcode Global: VH87T.X5DK

Entry Name: Offa's Dyke: section known as Buttington Tump, 100m west of Buttington Lodge

Scheduled Date: 31 December 1931

Last Amended: 29 January 2003

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020642

English Heritage Legacy ID: 34858

County: Gloucestershire

Civil Parish: Tidenham

Traditional County: Gloucestershire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Gloucestershire

Church of England Parish: Tidenham St Mary

Church of England Diocese: Gloucester

Details

The monument includes the buried and earthwork remains of a section of Offa's
Dyke 100m west of Buttington Lodge. Offa's Dyke generally consists of a
bank up to 3.5m high with an intermittent ditch to the west and quarries to
the east. In places Offa's Dyke was strengthened by additional earthworks,
namely a berm between the bank and ditch and a counterscarp bank on the
western lip of the ditch.
In this section the Dyke turns from its usual alignment to run for 161m from
north west to south east. It is visible as a ditch with a short section of
bank, known as Buttington Tump, at the eastern extent of the section. The
ditch survives to a maximum depth of 2.6m and is approximately 7m wide. The
eastern end of the ditch is no longer visible as it has become infilled over
time, but will survive as a buried feature. Buttington Tump is a fragment of
the bank of Offa's Dyke surviving to 24m long, 10m wide and a maximum of 3m
high. The road immediately to the east is believed to mark an original access
point through the Dyke leading down to a crossing over the Severn at Beachley.
The crossing is thought to have been used for a considerable period,
because the narrowing of the river at this point makes it the shortest
route across the Severn for about 16km. The importance of the crossing
may well have necessitated a break in the line of the Dyke. The name
`Buttington' is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle (AD 894), and
the `Butt' element of the place name is thought to mean `end', suggesting
an early terminal at this point.
In 1960 a section was cut through the bank in advance of road widening in
which the Tump was cut back by about 8m, with the excess material being
redeposited on the northern side of the mound. The excavation revealed an
infilled ditch to the south of the monument, and the steep angle of the tip
lines revealed within the bank suggest that the face of the bank may have
originally been revetted. The turf below the monument also appeared to have
been stripped away at this point, suggesting that the revetting may have been
of turf.
All fence and gate posts and stiles are excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 3 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Offa's Dyke is the longest linear earthwork in Britain, approximately 220km,
running from Treuddyn, near Mold, to Sedbury on the Severn estuary. It was
constructed towards the end of the eighth century AD by the Mercian king Offa,
and is believed to have formed a long-lived territorial, and possibly
defensive, boundary between the Saxon kingdom of Mercia and the Welsh
kingdoms.
The Dyke is not continuous and consists of a number of discrete lengths
separated by gaps of up to 23km. It is clear from the nature of certain
sections that differences in the scale and character of adjoining portions
were the result of separate gangs being employed on different lengths. Where
possible, natural topographic features such as slopes or rivers were utilised,
and the form of Offa's Dyke is therefore clearly related to the topography.
Along most of its length it consists of a bank with a ditch to the west.
Excavation has indicated that at least some lengths of the bank had a vertical
outer face of either laid stonework or turf revetment. The ditch generally
seems to have been used to provide most of the bank material, although there
is also evidence in some locations of shallow quarries. In places, a berm
divides the bank and ditch, and a counterscarp bank may be present on the lip
of the ditch.
Offa's Dyke now survives in various states of preservation in the form of
earthworks and, where sections have been levelled and infilled, as buried
features. Although some sections of the frontier system no longer survive
visibly, sufficient evidence does exist for its position to be accurately
identified throughout most of its length. In view of its contribution towards
the study of early medieval territorial patterns, all sections of Offa's Dyke
exhibiting significant archaeological remains are considered worthy of
protection.

The section of Offa's Dyke known as Buttington Tump survives well. The
section of bank will have preserved part of the original ground surface,
predating the construction of the monument and, along with the ditch, will
contain environmental evidence in the form of organic remains which will
relate both to the Dyke and to the landscape within which it was constructed.
The section of bank will also contain evidence relating to the methods of
construction of the Dyke and the building materials used.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hoyle, J, Vallender, J, Offa's Dyke in Gloucestershire: Management Survay, (1997)
Lewis, J M, 'Trans. of the Bristol and Glos. Arch. Society' in A Section Through Offa's Dyke at Buttington Tump, Tidenham, , Vol. 82, (1963), 202-204

Source: Historic England

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