Ancient Monuments

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Hillfort known as Greenway Camp, immediately north east of Cart Wood

A Scheduled Monument in Kingswear, Devon

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Latitude: 50.3728 / 50°22'21"N

Longitude: -3.5634 / 3°33'48"W

OS Eastings: 288921.096506

OS Northings: 53709.837725

OS Grid: SX889537

Mapcode National: GBR QT.WVHF

Mapcode Global: FRA 38F1.TVM

Entry Name: Hillfort known as Greenway Camp, immediately north east of Cart Wood

Scheduled Date: 19 March 1951

Last Amended: 24 April 2002

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020158

English Heritage Legacy ID: 33792

County: Devon

Civil Parish: Kingswear

Traditional County: Devon

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Devon

Church of England Parish: Brixham St Mary

Church of England Diocese: Exeter


This monument includes a large multiple enclosure hillfort, on a steep
south facing promontory overlooking the estuary of the River Dart. The
monument survives with an irregular oval inner enclosure aligned north
east to south west, its sloping interior measuring up to 90m wide and 165m
long, tapering down to a narrow south west corner. Evidence for two
periods of construction is supported by traces of a curving rampart across
the interior, belonging to an earlier roughly circular enclosure at the
north end of the site. This rampart, forming the earlier enclosure's south
side, survives in a reduced state and measures 10m wide, falling 2m to the
south onto a narrow terrace on the site of the outer ditch, while a
counterscarp bank 2m wide falls a further 0.5m. A kink in the eastern
rampart indicates the point where the later enclosure was added to the
earlier one. The ramparts of the later enclosure survive well, their
earth banks measuring from 2m to 5m wide, rising between 0.4m to 2.5m from
the interior and falling from 2m to 3.5m into an outer ditch. This ditch
survives best on the east side and measures up to 13m wide and up to 1.5m
deep, with traces of an upcast bank on its outer side. A second rampart,
lying 30m outside the first on its north east side, forms an outwork
protecting the approach to the main entrance, which lies at its south end.
Its bank measures 6m wide and rises up to 2m from the interior, falling
from 2.5m to 3m into an outer ditch 8m to 10m wide and 0.4m deep. The
outwork curves back to join the inner defences just south of the main,
entrance, which crosses the inner ditch on a causeway and passes through a
gap in the inner ramparts. A second entrance at the south west corner of
the fort passes through a narrow gap in the defences and is protected by a
crescent shaped outwork. This outwork survives as a scarp in the steep
slope immediately west of the fort and measures 45m long, with a rampart
14m wide falling 2m to a slight terrace on the site of its outer ditch.
A boundary work attached to the ramparts just west of this entrance runs
for at least 85m into the valley to the south. It has a 13m wide and 0.5m
high and a ditch 6m wide and 0.3m deep on its east side.

North of the fort a long outwork, roughly east-west aligned, a long
outwork cuts off the approach down the broad spur to the fort. Its bank
measures from 3m to 6m wide, rising up to 2m from the interior and falling
1.5m to an outer ditch 13m wide and 0.4m deep. It begins immediately above
the stream which runs down the north western side of the spur, and
terminates at the crest of the valley on the east side of the fort. Just
north of the terminal, an additional ditchless rampart returns along the
contour to the west, to a point where a track which climbs the valley side
from the south west passes through an oblique entrance. This additional
rampart measures 10m wide, rising 0.2m above ground to the north and
falling 0.8m to the south. The entrance measures 15m wide, the rampart
terminals overlapping for a distance of 30m. The rampart continues along
the contour to the WSW as a slight scarp, returning to the inner enclosure
of the fort.

The fence posts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground
beneath them is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Multiple enclosure forts comprise an inner and one or more outer enclosed
areas, together measuring up to c.10ha, and defined by sub-circular or sub-
rectangular earthworks spaced at intervals which exceed 15m; the inner
enclosure is usually entirely surrounded by a bank and ditch. The forts date
mainly to the Late Iron Age (350 BC-c.AD 50) and in England usually occur in
the south west. Most are sited on hillslopes overlooked by higher ground near
a water supply, and many were apparently used for periods of up to 250 years.
The outer enclosures of the forts are usually interpreted as areas set aside
for the containment of livestock, whilst the inner enclosures are generally
thought to have been the focus of occupation.
The earthworks usually include a bank with an outer V-shaped ditch 1m-3m deep.
Entrances are generally single gaps through each line of defence, often
aligned to create a passage from the outer to the inner enclosure, although
there are a few examples where entrances through successive earthworks are not
in alignment. Occasionally the interval between the gaps is marked by inturned
ramparts or low banks and ditches, while the outer entrance may be screened by
a short length of earthwork. Excavations within the inner enclosures have
revealed a range of buildings and structures, including circular structures,
hearths, ovens and cobbled surfaces as well as occasional small pits and large
depressions which may have functioned as watering holes.
Multiple enclosure forts are relatively rare with only around 75 examples
recorded in England, mostly in Devon and Cornwall. Outside these counties
their distribution becomes increasingly scattered and the form and
construction methods more varied. They are important for the study of
settlement and stock management in the later prehistoric period, and most
well-preserved examples will be identified as being of national importance.

Despite slight damage by ploughing and stock erosion, the multiple
enclosure fort known as Greenway Camp will retain features relating to the
development and use of the site. Stratified archaeological deposits are
likely to survive in the ditches, ramparts and interior of this previously
unexcavated hillfort and will add considerably to the future understanding
of this monument, and hillforts in general.

Source: Historic England


MPP fieldwork by R Waterhouse, Waterhouse, R, (2000)

Source: Historic England

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