Ancient Monuments

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Romano-British farmstead 700m east of Whingill

A Scheduled Monument in Hartley, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.4812 / 54°28'52"N

Longitude: -2.3178 / 2°19'4"W

OS Eastings: 379505.26503

OS Northings: 509579.352828

OS Grid: NY795095

Mapcode National: GBR DJ8M.0D

Mapcode Global: WH93G.CMJJ

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead 700m east of Whingill

Scheduled Date: 29 April 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018062

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27808

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Hartley

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Kirkby Stephen with Mallerstang and Crosby Garrett with Soulby

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the earthworks and buried remains of a Romano-British
farmstead located on a gently-sloping south west-facing hillside 700m east of
Whingill. It includes a cluster of at least six small sub-rectangular
enclosures, some of which would have functioned as stock pens while at least
one would have contained a hut or huts where the occupants dwelt. Traces of a
low earth and rubble boundary wall survive on the monument's west side. An
enclosure at the north west side is the best surviving one of the group; it
measures approximately 12m square internally with a surrounding wall up to 3m
wide and 1m high. To its south east there is a sub-rectangular enclosure with
an internal subdivision and an entrance at the south side of its eastern
partition. To the south west of this are three attached enclosures; the
northern one has an entrance on its north side, the central one appears
subdivided with entrances on its south side, and the southern enclosure has an
entrance on its north side. The eastern side of the farmstead is defined by a
low earth and rubble bank with traces of a small square enclosure at its
northern end. A cross wall or bank runs westwards for a short distance from
this eastern bank forming another subdivision within the farmstead.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

Despite some minor damage by ridge and furrow ploughing, the Romano-British
farmstead 700m east of Whingill survives reasonably well and is a good example
of this class of monument. It is one of a number of similar monuments located
on the limestone hillsides of east Cumbria and will facilitate any further
study of Romano-British settlement patterns in this area.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Higham, N, Jones, N, 'Archaeological Journal' in Frontiers, Forts and Farmers, , Vol. 132, (1975)
AP No. MU CS 45,14, Manchester University, Hartley,
SMR No. 3445, Cumbria SMR, Hartley, (1985)

Source: Historic England

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