Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

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Intake Bottom settlement enclosure and hut circle, 500m WSW of Croglam Castle

A Scheduled Monument in Kirkby Stephen, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.4629 / 54°27'46"N

Longitude: -2.3666 / 2°21'59"W

OS Eastings: 376333.478785

OS Northings: 507565.631398

OS Grid: NY763075

Mapcode National: GBR CJXT.FY

Mapcode Global: WH93M.M28Z

Entry Name: Intake Bottom settlement enclosure and hut circle, 500m WSW of Croglam Castle

Scheduled Date: 18 April 1978

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007085

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 510

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Kirkby Stephen

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Kirkby Stephen with Mallerstang and Crosby Garrett with Soulby

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the remains of a Romano-British settlement enclosure and hut circle situated on a north east facing slope. The enclosure, which is preserved as an earthwork, is sub-rectangular and is surrounded by a partial bank and ditch. Within the interior of the enclosure are an internal rectangular division and at least one hut circle. Boundary walls and fences associated with field boundaries that cross the scheduled area are not included in the scheduling, however, the ground beneath is included. Further archaeological remains identified via crop marks beyond the scheduled area may be associated with the monument; however they have not been assessed for designation and are thus not included.

PastScape Monument No:- 14654
NMR:- NY70NE24
Cumbria HER:- 1990

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.
Intake Bottom settlement enclosure and hut circle is preserved as an earthwork and will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment as well as environmental deposits relating to the use of the surrounding landscape. The monument lies in close proximity to a number of broadly contemporary settlement enclosures. Taken together the monuments provide insight into the character of settlement and subsistence during the Romano-British period.

Source: Historic England

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