Ancient Monuments

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Romano-British farmstead 650m south east of Whingill

A Scheduled Monument in Hartley, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.4774 / 54°28'38"N

Longitude: -2.3222 / 2°19'19"W

OS Eastings: 379218.019506

OS Northings: 509161.352148

OS Grid: NY792091

Mapcode National: GBR DJ7N.1R

Mapcode Global: WH93G.9QFF

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead 650m south east of Whingill

Scheduled Date: 18 March 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017865

English Heritage Legacy ID: 27803

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Hartley

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Kirkby Stephen with Mallerstang and Crosby Garrett with Soulby

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes a Romano-British farmstead located on a gently sloping
south facing hillside 650m south east of Whingill. It includes a cluster of
three attached enclosures, one of which contains the earthwork remains of a
hut circle while the other two enclosures would have functioned as stock pens.
A boundary wall of earth and rubble up to 4m wide and 1m high forms the west,
south and much of the eastern sides of the farmstead whilst the northern side
is terraced into the hillside. The southern enclosure is sub-rectangular in
plan and measures approximately 70m by 20m internally with an entrance in the
mid-point of its southern side. An irregularly-shaped enclosure with maximum
dimensions of 60m by 40m lies immediately to the north east; there is an
entrance on its western side and a second entrance leading from the attached
enclosure to the south west. The hut circle lies in a small sub-oval enclosure
attached to the north west side of the irregularly-shaped enclosure. This
enclosure has been terraced into the hillside and has maximum dimensions of
approximately 38m by 16m. The hut circle is centrally placed within the
enclosure and measures about 12m in diameter with a turf-covered stone wall up
to 0.3m high.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

Despite some minor stock erosion the Romano-British farmstead 650m south east
of Whingill survives reasonably well and is a good example of this class of
monument. It is one of a number of similar monuments located on the limestone
hillsides of east Cumbria and will facilitate any further study of Romano-
British settlement patterns in this area.

Source: Historic England


AP , Manchester University,
SMR No. 3445, Cumbria SMR, Hartley, (1985)

Source: Historic England

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