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Romano-British farmstead 800m north-east of High House

A Scheduled Monument in Bampton, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.5315 / 54°31'53"N

Longitude: -2.7906 / 2°47'26"W

OS Eastings: 348932.417004

OS Northings: 515426.203309

OS Grid: NY489154

Mapcode National: GBR 8JY1.MB

Mapcode Global: WH81X.3CDD

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead 800m north-east of High House

Scheduled Date: 8 December 1938

Last Amended: 1 September 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011595

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22550

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Bampton

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Bampton St Patrick

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Details

The monument is a Romano-British farmstead presently submerged beneath
Haweswater Reservoir. Survey work undertaken by the RCHME during the 1930's
indicates that the site includes two roughly rhomboidal enclosures. The
southern one has maximum internal dimensions of 19m by 28m and is surrounded
by a slight rampart up to 3m wide. This rampart terminates at its north-west
end in a low circular mound approximately 6.5m in diameter. Immediately to the
east of this mound is an entrance to the enclosure. The northern enclosure has
maximum internal dimensions of 38m by 28m. It abuts the southerly enclosure
and is divided from it by a rampart 3m wide which turns north-west immediately
east of the entrance to the southerly enclosure to form the western defences.
On the north there are no apparent defences, the enclosure terminating in an
inward sloping scarp which takes the form of a rampart at the north-east end
only. The eastern side has no apparent protection other than a short but steep
scarp, in the face of which are two hut circles 5m in diameter. A small
rectangular platform measuring 6.5m by 6m abuts the external angle formed by
the ramparts of the two enclosures.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

This monument is a typical example of a Romano-British farmstead.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
Ebbatson,L., MPP Single Mon Class Descriptions - Romano-British Farmsteads, (1989)
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)

Source: Historic England

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