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Wolston priory and moated site

A Scheduled Monument in Wolston, Warwickshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.3793 / 52°22'45"N

Longitude: -1.392 / 1°23'31"W

OS Eastings: 441481.225286

OS Northings: 275864.362556

OS Grid: SP414758

Mapcode National: GBR 7NW.WBJ

Mapcode Global: VHBX6.TGGD

Entry Name: Wolston priory and moated site

Scheduled Date: 20 December 1957

Last Amended: 11 May 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007721

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21558

County: Warwickshire

Civil Parish: Wolston

Built-Up Area: Wolston

Traditional County: Warwickshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Warwickshire

Church of England Parish: Wolston St Margaret

Church of England Diocese: Coventry

Details

The monument is situated in an area of low-lying ground on the north east
outskirts of Wolston and includes the remains of an alien priory, an
associated moated site and an area of ridge and furrow cultivation. The site
can be divided into two parts chronologically: the alien priory and a medieval
farmstead which includes the moated site and the ridge and furrow which
overlies parts of the priory site.
The alien priory in Wolston was founded between 1086 and 1194 by Hubert
Boldran and belonged to the Benedictine abbey of St Pierre-sur-Dives. Wolston
priory was a small cell and, although it did have a prior, it is thought that
there were never more than one or two monks at the site. The remains of the
priory are visible as earthworks in the eastern and southern parts of the
site. These earthworks include a slightly raised platform in the south east
area of the site. The platform has a levelled surface and is thought to be the
site of one of the priory buildings. Slight earthworks are visible to the
north and west of the building platform which indicate the position of further
buried features associated with the priory. During the 14th century the
buildings at the priory are known to have included a hall, barn, stable and
grange and by 1388 a number of the priory buildings were in a ruined state.
The northern and north east edges of the priory site are defined by 3m wide
boundary ditches which are considered to represent the precinct boundary at
these points. It is thought that the western extension of Priory Road may
represent the original south east boundary of the monastic precinct.
The house called The Priory is situated approximately 30m east of the priory
site and dates mostly to the 16th century. Although the house is thought to
have been built outside the precinct, a stone piscina and a carved corbel have
been incorporated within the fabric of the house and these may have been
removed from a monastic building. The house is Listed Grade II and lies
outside the area of the scheduling.
In 1394 the alien priory was sold to the Carthusian priory of St Anne in
Coventry in order that the site and its land could be used as a farming
venture. The Carthusians were probably responsible for the construction
of the moated site immediately to the north west of the alien priory
earthworks, at the end of the 14th century or during the early 15th century.
The buildings of the priory were probably demolished at this time.
The polygonal moated site measures up to 80m south west-north east and 60m
north west-south east. The moat is 12m wide and approximately 1.5m deep. The
north west, south west and south east arms of the moat are now dry and a
stream flows along the moat's north east arm. The moated island has an area of
0.2ha and is raised above the surrounding ground surface. There are
intermittent traces of an internal bank along the edge of the moated island
and it is best preserved along the western edge of the island. The surface of
the island rises gradually towards its western edge. There are no standing
buildings on the island but slight earthworks are visible and these are
considered to indicate the position of buried structures. A shallow depression
is visible at the north east edge of the moated island. It is bounded by
slight banks and is thought to mark the position of a bridge across the moat
which provided access to the island.
The earthwork remains of the alien priory, south east of the moated site, are
overlaid by ridge and furrow cultivation which is visible running north-south
across the site. The ridge and furrow respects the priory's boundary ditches
along the north and east sides of the site and is thought to be associated
with the agricultural development of the site by the Carthusians after the
14th century. The ridge and furrow provides evidence for the conversion of the
priory site from a religious establishment to an agricultural estate of the
Carthusian monks.
In 1539 St Anne's Priory was dissolved and the site became the property of
the Wigston family who constructed the house called The Priory, apparently
outside the original precinct boundary.
All fence posts on the site are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground
beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

From the time of St Augustine's mission to re-establish Christianity in AD 597
to the reign of Henry VIII, monasticism formed an important facet of both
religious and secular life in the British Isles. Settlements of religious
communities, including monasteries, were built to house communities of monks,
canons (priests), and sometimes lay-brothers, living a common life of
religious observance under some form of systematic discipline. It is estimated
from documentary evidence that over 700 monasteries were founded in England.
These ranged in size from major communities with several hundred members to
tiny establishments with a handful of brethren. They belonged to a wide
variety of different religious orders, each with its own philosophy. As a
result, they vary considerably in the detail of their appearance and layout,
although all possess the basic elements of church, domestic accommodation for
the community, and work buildings. Monasteries were inextricably woven into
the fabric of medieval society, acting not only as centres of worship,
learning and charity, but also, because of the vast landholdings of some
orders, as centres of immense wealth and political influence. They were
established in all parts of England, some in towns and others in the remotest
of areas. Many monasteries acted as the foci of wide networks including parish
churches, almshouses, hospitals, farming estates and tenant villages.
Benedictine monasticism had its roots in the rule written about AD 530 by St
Benedict of Nursia for his own abbey at Monte Cassino. Benedict had not
intended to establish an order of monasteries and wider adoption of his rule
came only gradually. The first real attempt to form a Benedictine order came
only in 1216. The Benedictine monks, who wore dark robes, came to be known as
`black monks'. These dark robes distinguished them from Cistercian monks who
became known as `white monks' on account of their light coloured robes. Over
150 Benedictine monasteries were founded in England. As members of a highly
successful order many Benedictine houses became extremely wealthy and
influential. Their wealth can frequently be seen in the scale and flamboyance
of their buildings. Benedictine monasteries made a major contribution to many
facets of medieval life and all examples exhibiting significant surviving
archaeological remains are worthy of protection.

The site preserves good archaeological evidence illustrating the way in
which alien Benedictine priories were converted for secular uses in the late
14th and early 15th centuries. Wolston Priory is a good example of a religious
establishment which was converted into an agricultural estate belonging to a
different religious order. The earthwork remains of the alien priory still
survive, although ploughed, and the site will retain important structural
evidence for the original priory. The moated island will retain both
structural and artefactual information for the buildings that originally
occupied the site, and for the activities of the site's inhabitants. Organic
material will survive within the waterfilled north east arm of the moat.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of the County of Warwickshire, (1908), 133
Salzman, L F, Wells, H B, The Victoria History of the County of Warwickshire , (1951), 275

Source: Historic England

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