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Motte and bailey castle, 30m east of St John the Baptist's Church

A Scheduled Monument in Brinklow, Warwickshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.4122 / 52°24'44"N

Longitude: -1.3572 / 1°21'26"W

OS Eastings: 443816.422678

OS Northings: 279553.916104

OS Grid: SP438795

Mapcode National: GBR 7NJ.RNN

Mapcode Global: VHCTH.FMBM

Entry Name: Motte and bailey castle, 30m E of St John the Baptist's Church

Scheduled Date: 12 February 1925

Last Amended: 8 February 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1011368

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21547

County: Warwickshire

Civil Parish: Brinklow

Built-Up Area: Brinklow

Traditional County: Warwickshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Warwickshire

Church of England Parish: Brinklow St John the Baptist

Church of England Diocese: Coventry

Details

The monument is situated to the east of St John the Baptist's Church in the
village of Brinklow and includes the motte and double bailey castle and an
area of ridge and furrow cultivation.
The motte and bailey castle is situated in a commanding position on a short
elevated ridge running east-west. It was built to command the line of the
Fosse Way, a former Roman road of considerable military importance in the
medieval period. The castle is surrounded and strengthened by a ditch which
measures up to 18m wide. The motte is located at the eastern end of the bailey
and has been artificially raised. The flat-topped motte has a diameter of 79m
at its base and is 15m high. It is surrounded by a ditch, 12m wide which
separates the motte from the bailey to the west. The northern section of the
motte ditch has been slightly damaged by the construction of Ell Lane. To the
west of the motte lies the double bailey. These two enclosures are bounded by
a single ditch which is a maximum of 25m wide and up to 4m deep in places. The
ditch has been partly destroyed by earth digging along the NW boundary of the
site. There are earthen banks within the enclosing ditch around both baileys
which rise to 3m in height at the angles. The bailey is divided into inner and
outer enclosures by a ditch which is up to 16m wide. The two enclosures vary
both in size and form. The inner covers an area of 0.33ha and is an irregular
oblong in plan, while the outer bailey has a triangular plan and covers an
area of 0.45ha. In the northern part of the outer bailey is a small mound with
a diameter of 10m. Access into the castle is by means of a causeway in the
central part of the outer bailey's western defences. It is aligned with the
causeway between the two bailey enclosures and may mark the site of the
original entrance to the castle.
To the south, south east and east of the motte and bailey castle are the
earthwork remains of ridge and furrow cultivation. The ridge and furrow
immediately to the east and south east of the motte defines a triangular
enclosure attached to the castle. There is no surface evidence of defensive
earthworks in this area and it may therefore have been used for agricultural
purposes. This triangular area is included in the scheduling. The ridge and
furrow respects the castle defences and provides a stratigraphic relationship
between the motte and bailey castle and the land use of the surrounding area.
A 10m wide sample area of ridge and furrow to the east, south and south east
of the castle site is included in the scheduling in order to preserve this
relationship.
The motte and bailey castle in Brinklow is thought to have been associated
with William the Conqueror's northern campaigns in 1069. Its position on the
Fosse Way and the fact that the castle is located almost halfway between the
castles of Warwick and Leicester suggests that it was one of a number of
castles built at strategic points on the Fosse Way. The site was in the hands
of the Earl of Meulan in the late 11th century and later given to Nigel de
Albany, the first of the Mowbrays. Its occupation as a castle, however, is
thought to have ceased at an early period.
The modern access steps at the south western corner of the castle site and all
fence posts are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground beneath these
features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Motte and bailey castles are medieval fortifications introduced into Britain
by the Normans. They comprised a large conical mound of earth or rubble, the
motte, surmounted by a palisade and a stone or timber tower. In a majority of
examples an embanked enclosure containing additional buildings, the bailey,
adjoined the motte. Motte castles and motte-and-bailey castles acted as
garrison forts during offensive military operations, as strongholds, and, in
many cases, as aristocratic residences and as centres of local or royal
administration. Built in towns, villages and open countryside, motte and
bailey castles generally occupied strategic positions dominating their
immediate locality and, as a result, are the most visually impressive
monuments of the early post-Conquest period surviving in the modern landscape.
Over 600 motte castles or motte-and-bailey castles are recorded nationally,
with examples known from most regions. As one of a restricted range of
recognised early post-Conquest monuments, they are particularly important for
the study of Norman Britain and the development of the feudal system. Although
many were occupied for only a short period of time, motte castles continued to
be built and occupied from the 11th to the 13th centuries, after which they
were superseded by other types of castle.

The motte and bailey castle in Brinklow is a good example of this type of
monument and it survives very well. The castle occupied a site of significant
strategic importance on the Fosse Way and is associated with the campaigns of
William the Conqueror. The early abandonment of the site and the lack of
modern development will ensure that early archaeological deposits will survive
undisturbed at the castle site. These artefactual and structural deposits will
provide evidence for the economy of the castle's inhabitants.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of the County of Warwickshire: Volume I, (1904), 361
Dugdale, W, Antiquities of Warwickshire, (1730), 218
Chatwin, P B, 'Transactions of the Birmingham Archaeologiacl Society' in Castles in Warwickshire, (1947), 4
Chatwin, P B, 'Transactions of the Birmingham Archaeologiacl Society' in Castles in Warwickshire, (1947), 4-6

Source: Historic England

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