Ancient Monuments

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Two batteries and part of a third at Maker Heights called Redoubt No1, Redoubt No2 and Redoubt No3

A Scheduled Monument in Maker-with-Rame, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.3402 / 50°20'24"N

Longitude: -4.1988 / 4°11'55"W

OS Eastings: 243630.6549

OS Northings: 51226.1923

OS Grid: SX436512

Mapcode National: GBR NT.WTKS

Mapcode Global: FRA 2834.D1M

Entry Name: Two batteries and part of a third at Maker Heights called Redoubt No1, Redoubt No2 and Redoubt No3

Scheduled Date: 13 June 1972

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1004254

English Heritage Legacy ID: CO 832

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Maker-with-Rame

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Maker

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The monument, which falls into three areas of protection, includes two batteries and part of a third situated on the prominent ridge of the Rame peninsula known as Maker Heights overlooking Cawsand Bay and Millbrook Lake. The northern battery, 'Redoubt No1 (Royal Cornwall)' survives as an irregular rectangular platform measuring approximately 45m by 25m surrounded by high steep ramparts and a flat bottomed moat measuring 3m to 6m wide. It was originally designed to hold ten guns behind embrasures. Within the redoubt is a fenced area containing the visible surface structures and the underground bunkers associated with a 20th century Royal Observer Corps monitoring post.
The central battery, 'Redoubt No2 (Somerset)' is partly scheduled and survives as a five-sided battery. The north eastern part is excluded from the scheduling and contains a number of listed buildings. The scheduled portion includes a rampart bank and up to 9m wide flat bottomed moat. The redoubt originally housed ten guns.
The southern battery, 'Redoubt No3 (50th Regiment)' survives as a four-sided earthwork measuring approximately 45m by 25m. It is of similar construction to Redoubt No2 with a flat bottomed moat of between 5m and 10m wide and originally housed ten guns. Within the redoubt is the 'Soldier's Grave', a recumbent slate slab with an inscription dating to the 1790s.

The redoubts, together with Redoubts No4 and No5 (the subjects of separate schedulings) were built during the War of Independence with America in 1779 as temporary structures which were made more permanent in 1782 and were meant to become a line of bastions for a fort which was never completed. Redoubts No 2 and No 3 were disarmed in 1815 and stone from No3 was used to remodel Redoubts No4 and No5 from 1787 - 1791. Redoubt No1 was disarmed and dismantled in 1896.
The guard house and north east boundary wall and barrack block of Redoubt No 2 are Listed Grade II* (61724) and (469546)

This list entry was subject to a Minor Amendment on 23/10/2015

Sources: HER:-
PastScape Monument No:-437657, 1395690, 1395692 and1411779

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The term battery refers to any place where artillery is positioned to allow guns to cover a particular area such as a line of communication or the approaches to a defended location. Although often contained within artillery forts designed to withstand sieges, typically including resident garrisons, many batteries were lightly defended and only manned at fighting strength in times of emergency.
Batteries not contained within forts or castles were either open, with some approaches left undefended or enclosed, often with a loopholed wall, ditch and/or fence designed to repel small scale attacks. Battery design evolved over time with developments in artillery. Those of the 16th and 17th centuries were normally simple raised earthwork platforms faced with turf, facines (bundles of sticks), or wicker baskets filled with earth and known as gabions. More permanent batteries, normally those on the coast, were faced in stone. The guns and gunners were typically protected by a raised parapet with guns firing through embrasures, or breaks in the wall, or over the parapet. The gun carriages were supported on timber or stone platforms known as barbettes, often ramped to limit gun recoil.
In the 18th century, traversing guns using carriages mounted on pivots were increasingly employed.
The two batteries and part of a third at Maker Heights called Redoubt No1, Redoubt No2 and Redoubt No3 are a rare reminder of the response to the American War of Independence. They will contain archaeological evidence relating to their construction, development, use, and military, political, social and historical significance.

Source: Historic England

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