Ancient Monuments

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Pen y Ffrwd-Llwyd Camp

A Scheduled Monument in Ystrad Meurig, Ceredigion

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Latitude: 52.302 / 52°18'7"N

Longitude: -3.8943 / 3°53'39"W

OS Eastings: 270932

OS Northings: 268782

OS Grid: SN709687

Mapcode National: GBR 90.X3TS

Mapcode Global: VH4G1.GD3N

Entry Name: Pen y Ffrwd-Llwyd Camp

Scheduled Date: 1 August 1948

Source: Cadw

Source ID: 145

Cadw Legacy ID: CD033

Schedule Class: Defence

Category: Hillfort

Period: Prehistoric

County: Ceredigion

Community: Ystrad Meurig

Traditional County: Cardiganshire


The monument comprises the remains of a hillfort, which probably dates to the Iron Age period (c. 800 BC - AD 74, the Roman conquest of Wales). Hillforts are usually located on hilltops and surrounded by a single or multiple earthworks of massive proportions. Hillforts must have formed symbols of power within the landscape, while their function may have had as much to do with ostentation and display as defence. Pen y Ffrwd-Llwyd Camp is sited on a prominent ridge with good views in most directions. The west side the hillfort is formed by a cliff edge, while the slope on the east is rather less steep. The fort is an elongated oval in plan, measuring c.188m north-east to south-west by 80m east to west. The main gate was sited at the northeast corner and is approached by a well-defined trackway which enters between the terminals of two lines of ramparts and is flanked by an additional outwork on the north-west which may define a small annexe. A postern gate 1.3m wide on the south-west side passes between rock-cut ditch sections. The enclosure is bivallate but the two ramparts are separated by clear ground and, particularly on the southeast side, the suggestion of a terrace. Differences in construction suggest that they may represent different building phases. The inner rampart is much more slightly constructed, though the line takes full advantage of the natural defences of the hill, while the outer enclosure consists of a bank standing up to c.3m high above a strong outer rock cut ditch, particularly on the north and south sides. Traces of well-built stone walling can also be seen on its outer face. Up to three house platforms can be traced inside the fort, but aerial photographs suggest the existence of many more. An oblique trackway which cuts through both sets of defences on the east side probably represents a later entrance into the enclosure; there is the possibility of early medieval or medieval re-use.

The monument is of national importance for its potential to enhance our knowledge of later prehistoric defensive organisation and settlement. The site forms an important element within the wider later prehistoric context and within the surrounding landscape. The site is well preserved and retains considerable archaeological potential. There is a strong probability of the presence of evidence relating to chronology, building techniques and functional detail.

The scheduled area comprises the remains described and areas around them within which related evidence may be expected to survive.

Source: Cadw

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