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Parts of Johnby medieval village 285m and 540m north west of Johnby Hall

A Scheduled Monument in Greystoke, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.6889 / 54°41'20"N

Longitude: -2.882 / 2°52'55"W

OS Eastings: 343239.906526

OS Northings: 533010.475721

OS Grid: NY432330

Mapcode National: GBR 8G96.VY

Mapcode Global: WH812.PDTR

Entry Name: Parts of Johnby medieval village 285m and 540m north west of Johnby Hall

Scheduled Date: 12 November 2003

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1021145

English Heritage Legacy ID: 35018

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Greystoke

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Greystoke

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument, which is divided into two separate areas of protection,
includes the earthworks and buried remains of parts of Johnby medieval
village located 285m and 540m north west of Johnby Hall.

Although the date of the first settlement at Johnby is unknown the village
is unlikely to have pre-dated the late 11th century Norman conquest of the
region. Documentary sources indicate that the Manor of Johnby was owned by
the family of de Joneby, Jonby or Jonnebi from the days of King John's
reign (1199-1216), and possibly earlier, and was held of the Barony of
Greystoke. In 1300 the manor was sold to John Mauleverer and by 1326 had
passed to the de Aubeneye family. During the 14th and 15th centuries the
manor passed by marriage firstly to the de Vetripont family, then to the
de Stapilton family, and latterly to the Musgraves with whom it remained
until sold in about 1650. The village remains in occupation today and the
protected area include those parts of the medieval village which were
abandoned but are still identifiable as having formed part of it.

The plan of the medieval village of Johnby is of a type familiar to this
part of Cumbria in which two parallel lines of tofts or houses with crofts
or garden areas to the rear, face onto a village green or street. Where
not covered by post-medieval buildings the well-preserved earthwork
remains of the medieval village consist of abandoned tofts, that is house
plots, and associated earthwork enclosures or crofts which pre-date the
existing post-medieval field system.

On the south west side of the main street, in the field centred at
NY43253300, there are stone building foundations and earthwork building
platforms to the rear and north west of the modern buildings, together
with the well-defined remains of an enclosure or croft situated towards
the north west corner of the field, and possible traces of another
enclosure in the southern part of this field. At NY43093318, just to the
south east of a field barn, there are the stone foundations of two small
rectangular buildings which are interpreted as having formed part of the
medieval village.

A field barn, a cable supporting a telegraph pole and all modern walls,
fences and gateposts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground
beneath these features is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity
in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains
needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been
divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive
mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided
into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have
gradually evolved during the past 1500 years or more.
This monument lies in the Cumbria-Solway sub-Province of the Northern and
Western Province, an area characterised by dispersed hamlets and farmsteads,
but with some larger nucleated settlements in well-defined agriculturally
favoured areas, established after the Norman Conquest. Traces of seasonal
settlements, or shielings, dominate the high, wet and windy uplands, where
surrounding communities grazed their livestock during the summer months.
The Eden Valley local region is a rich agricultural lowland ringed by mountain
pastures. It is densely settled with small market towns, villages, hamlets and
isolated farmsteads. Medieval castles and monasteries, a multitude of
earthwork sites and the distinctive mix of Celtic, Scottish, English,
Scandinavian and Norman place-names all testify to the ancient and long
sustained occupation of this important region.

Medieval villages were organised agricultural communities, sited at the
centre of a parish or township, that shared resources such as arable land,
meadow and woodland. Village plans varied enormously, but where they
survive as earthworks their most distinguishing features include roads and
minor tracks, platforms on which stood houses and other buildings such as
barns, enclosed crofts and small enclosed paddocks. They frequently
included the parish church within their boundaries, and as part of the
manorial system most villages include one or more manorial centres which
may also survive as visible remains as well as below ground deposits. In
the northern and western province of England medieval villages occurred
infrequently amid areas of otherwise dispersed medieval settlement and
good examples are therefore proportionally infrequent. Thus their
archaeological remains are one of the most important sources for
understanding rural life in the five centuries or more following the
Norman Conquest.

Despite being partly overlain by post-medieval building, a substantial
proportion of the earthworks of Johnby medieval village survives well. It
is a good example of this class of monument in the Eden Valley local
region and will add greatly to our understanding of the wider settlement
and economy during the medieval period.

Source: Historic England


AP No's CCC3007,27-32; CCC2464,17-19, Cumbria County Council, Johnby, (1980)
SMR No. 6764, Cumbria County Council, Hazard Area For Johnby Medieval Village, (1989)

Source: Historic England

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