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Bryn-y-Castell and a section of Wat's Dyke adjacent to Preeshenlle United Reformed Church

A Scheduled Monument in Selattyn and Gobowen, Shropshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.8993 / 52°53'57"N

Longitude: -3.0362 / 3°2'10"W

OS Eastings: 330396.77531

OS Northings: 334047.454177

OS Grid: SJ303340

Mapcode National: GBR 74.P6ZP

Mapcode Global: WH89Q.BDG4

Entry Name: Bryn-y-Castell and a section of Wat's Dyke adjacent to Preeshenlle United Reformed Church

Scheduled Date: 9 May 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019835

English Heritage Legacy ID: 33845

County: Shropshire

Civil Parish: Selattyn and Gobowen

Built-Up Area: Gobowen

Traditional County: Shropshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Shropshire

Church of England Parish: Gobowen All Saints

Church of England Diocese: Lichfield

Details

The monument includes the earthwork and buried remains of a motte castle,
traditionally known as Bryn-y-Castell, meaning the castle on the hill, and an
adjacent section of Wat's Dyke, which lie within two separate areas of
protection. The motte occupies an elevated position at the northern end of a
spur above the flood plain of the River Perry. From this location there are
extensive views of the uplands to the west and the undulating lowlands to the
east. The motte lies immediately to the west of Wat's Dyke, an earlier
territorial boundary.
The motte is oval in plan, measuring approximately 46m by 60m at its base and
36m by 44m across the top. In order to create a level building platform, in
relation to the sloping ground on which its stands, the height of the motte
increases from 0.7m on the western side to 1.7m on its southern side, where
the natural slope appears to have been artificially enhanced. The deep cut
into the eastern side of the spur for the construction of Preeshenlle United
Reformed Church in the 19th century has partly removed the lower portion of
the edge of the motte on this side. The church is not included in the
scheduling. A ditch was constructed around the motte, except to the north east
where the natural slope is steepest. The ditch, which is visible as a shallow
depression about 6m wide to the west, has become infilled over the years, but
will survive as a buried feature.
Wat's Dyke is a major territorial boundary consisting of a bank about 7m wide,
bounded by a deep ditch, also about 7m wide, on its western side. It mostly
runs in a north to south/north easterly to south westerly direction, and
generally defines the lower land to the east from the higher ground to the
west. It has been traditionlly interpreted as an Anglo-Saxon frontier
earthwork, marking the western extent of the Mercian kingdom in the 8th
century AD. Scientific dating of a section of the Dyke, following an
archaeological excavation to the south of Oswestry town centre, has indicated
that the Dyke was probably constructed in the 5th century AD.
The stretch of the Dyke to the south of the flood plain of the River Perry
follows the lower ground immediately to the east of the spur on which the
motte castle was built. A section of the Dyke ditch, 22m long, is visible as a
broad, flat depression, about 7m wide, to the north east of the motte. The
western side of the ditch is discernible as a scarp, which has cut into the
natural slope. Surviving largely as a buried feature, this infilled part of
the ditch is thought to be as much as 4m deep. There are no visible
indications of the adjacent bank. This area has been landscaped over recent
centuries, and as a consequence is not included in the scheduling. Other
sections of Wat's Dyke to the north and south are the subject of separate
schedulings.
The electricity poles and all fence posts are excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Motte castles are medieval fortifications introduced into Britain by the
Normans. They comprised a large conical mound of earth or rubble, the motte,
surmounted by a palisade and a stone or timber tower. In a majority of
examples an embanked enclosure containing additional buildings, the bailey,
adjoined the motte. Motte castles and motte-and-bai1ey castles acted as
garrison forts during offensive military operations, as strongholds, and, in
many cases, as aristocratic residences and as centres of local or royal
administration. Built in towns, villages and open countryside, motte castles
generally occupied strategic positions dominating their immediate locality
and, as a result, are the most visually impressive monuments of the early
post-Conquest period surviving in the modern landscape. Over 600 motte castles
and motte-and-bailey castles are recorded nationally, with examples known from
most regions. Some 100-150 examples do not have baileys and are classified as
motte castles. As one of a restricted range of recognised early post-Conquest
monuments, they are particularly important for the study of Norman Britain and
the development of the feudal system. Although many were occupied for only a
short period of time, motte castles continued to be built and occupied from
the 11th to the 13th centuries, after which they were superseded by other
types of castle.

The motte castle adjacent to Preeshenelle United Reformed Church is a
well-preserved example of this class of monument, despite the partial removal
of the eastern edge of the motte in the 19th century. The mound will retain
evidence of the buildings constructed upon its summit, which together with the
associated artefacts and organic remains, will provide valuable evidence about
the nature of the occupation and the life styles of those who inhabited the
castle. Organic remains preserved within the buried ground surface under the
motte and within the ditch will provide information about the local
environment and use of the land prior to and following the construction of the
motte.
The importance of this motte castle is further enhanced by its close proximity
to Wat's Dyke. In the medieval period this section of the Dyke may have been
reused to serve as a defensive outwork to the castle.
The organic and artefactual remains preserved within the ditch of the dyke
will provide dating evidence relating to the construction of the dyke and the
period of its use. The organic remains preserved within the ditch also have
the potential to enhance and add to the information about the changes to the
environment and land use in this area.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hannaford, H R, 'Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society' in An excavation on Wat's Dyke at Mile Oak, Oswestry, Shropshire, , Vol. 73, (1998), 1-7

Source: Historic England

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