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A length of the Great Western Reave, a prehistoric settlement, three cairns and two field systems on Walkhampton Common

A Scheduled Monument in Walkhampton, Devon

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.5225 / 50°31'21"N

Longitude: -4.0354 / 4°2'7"W

OS Eastings: 255815.160819

OS Northings: 71171.703478

OS Grid: SX558711

Mapcode National: GBR Q1.QF9F

Mapcode Global: FRA 27FP.3PT

Entry Name: A length of the Great Western Reave, a prehistoric settlement, three cairns and two field systems on Walkhampton Common

Scheduled Date: 19 February 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019589

English Heritage Legacy ID: 34425

County: Devon

Civil Parish: Walkhampton

Traditional County: Devon

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Devon

Details

The monument, which falls into two areas of protection, includes a length of
the Great Western Reave, a prehistoric settlement, three cairns, two field
systems and a boundary stone on Walkhampton Common. The Great Western Reave
measures over 10km long and is the longest known prehistoric land division
boundary on Dartmoor. A 2.58km length of the reave survives within the
monument. The first part leads from NGR SX55217030 to SX56157163 and the
second part leads from NGR SX56207173 to SX56567251. Along its length, the
width of the reave varies between 2.5m and 4m, whilst its height varies
between 0.2m and 0.7m.
Where the core of the reave is visible, it is of rubble bank construction. A
second reave leads off at right angles at NGR SX55777088 and this one measures
500m long by 1.5m wide and 0.5m high.
The prehistoric settlement lies adjacent to the Great Western Reave at NGR
SX56007126 and includes at least six stone hut circles and two enclosures.
The stone hut circles survive as banks each surrounding a circular or oval
internal area which varies between 2.54 sq m and 7.5 sq m, with the average
being 5.4 sq m. The heights of the surrounding walls vary between 0.3m and
0.5m, with the average being 0.4m. One of the huts has a visible doorway, all
six are butted to the Great Western Reave and two are in turn butted by
enclosure walling. These relationships indicate that the reave was constructed
first, followed by the stone hut circles and finally the enclosures.
Towards the south western end of the Great Western Reave are two field systems
and three cairns. The first, centred at NGR SX55377057, includes two
substantial rubble banks measuring up to 8m wide and 1.4m high. These banks
are more substantial than the field boundaries associated with Bronze Age
settlements on the Moor and it is considered likely that they are of Neolithic
or Early Bronze Age date. Their position midway between two stone alignments
and more significantly the addition of a later funerary cairn to the top of
one boundary is very suggestive of an early origin. The cairn on top of the
field boundary measures 8m in diameter and stands up to 1.4m high. A slight
hollow in the centre of the mound suggests partial early excavation or
robbing. A second cairn lying south of the field system measures 9.8m long by
5m wide and stands up to 0.7m high. This too has been investigated in the
past.
The second field system is similar in character to the first and is centred at
NGR SX55227033. This field system includes two main boundaries, the largest of
which measures 64m long, up to 5m wide and 0.3m high. This field system may
also predate the nearby Great Western Reave. A nearby cairn measures 5.8m in
diameter and stands up to 0.5m high.
Two features of historic date survive within the monument. The first is a
boundary stone of unknown date and function which stands in the centre of the
prehistoric settlement. This stone measures 1.3m high by up to 0.84m wide and
tapers to a point at the top. The second historic feature is a short length
of leat which cuts through the Great Western Reave at NGR SX56347212. Both
features are included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Dartmoor is the largest expanse of open moorland in southern Britain and,
because of exceptional conditions of preservation, it is also one of the most
complete examples of an upland relict landscape in the whole country. The
great wealth and diversity of archaeological remains provide direct evidence
for human exploitation of the Moor from the early prehistoric period onwards.
The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites,
major land boundaries, trackways, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as
later industrial remains, gives significant insights into successive changes
in the pattern of land use through time. Elaborate complexes of fields and
field boundaries are some of the major features of the Dartmoor landscape. The
reaves are part of an extensive system of prehistoric land division introduced
during the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC). They consist of simple linear stone
banks used to mark out discrete territories, some of which are tens of
kilometres in extent. The systems are defined by parallel, contour and
watershed reaves, dividing the lower land from the grazing zones of the higher
moor and defining the watersheds of adjacent river systems. Occupation sites
and funerary or ceremonial monuments are often incorporated in, or associated
with, reave complexes. Their longevity and their relationship with other
monument types provide important information on the diversity of social
organisation, land divisions and farming practices amongst prehistoric
communities. They show considerable longevity as a monument type, sometimes
surviving as fossilised examples in medieval field plans. They are an
important element in the existing landscape and, as such, a substantial
proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection.

The length of the Great Western Reave, the prehistoric settlement, three
cairns and two field systems on Walkhampton Common survive well and together
contain information relating to the construction, use and development of the
longest known territorial reave on Dartmoor. The adjacent field systems are
probably earlier than the reave and therefore contain evidence relating to the
exploitation of this area in the time before the more substantial Bronze Age
territories were established.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Butler, J, Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities, (1994), 85
Other
Devon County Sites and Monuments Register, SX57SE279, (1986)
MPP fieldwork by S. Gerrard, Gerrard, S., (2000)
Title: SX 57 SE
Source Date: 1982
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:
1:10000

Source: Historic England

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