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St Wilfrid's Church and churchyard

A Scheduled Monument in Kinoulton, Nottinghamshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.8671 / 52°52'1"N

Longitude: -1.0182 / 1°1'5"W

OS Eastings: 466187.269614

OS Northings: 330410.961703

OS Grid: SK661304

Mapcode National: GBR 9L7.7DB

Mapcode Global: WHFJK.B6CB

Entry Name: St Wilfrid's Church and churchyard

Scheduled Date: 16 November 1984

Last Amended: 24 January 2001

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1019493

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29982

County: Nottinghamshire

Civil Parish: Kinoulton

Traditional County: Nottinghamshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Nottinghamshire

Church of England Parish: Kinoulton

Church of England Diocese: Southwell and Nottingham

Details

The monument includes the earthwork, buried and standing remains of
St Wilfrid's Church, Kinoulton. The site of the church lies in an isolated
enclosure on a low mound approximately 1.5km from the centre of Kinoulton
village.
It is not known when the church was first built but it was certainly in
existence by the 12th century when it is recorded that the church of Wilfrid
at Kinoulton was granted to the church of St Peter of York and to Roger, the
archbishop of York. Included in the grant was a garden, four oxgangs of land
belonging to the church, a toft (homestead) and twelve acres of land with
common pasture. It is believed that the church was built to serve the village
of Kinoulton which would, at that time, have been situated near to the church
but has since migrated to the east.
In the early 16th century the Valor Ecclesiasticus valued the church at the
yearly sum of 7 pounds, 18 shillings and 11 pence. However, by the late 18th
century the church is described as being in ruin and a chapel, known as
Newbolt Chapel and situated at the eastern end of the village, was instead
used by the parishioners. A new church, situated in the centre of the existing
village, is dedicated to Luke and was consecrated by the Archbishop of York on
Monday 15th July 1793.
The monument survives as a series of earthworks and buried remains with some
upstanding gravestones. A series of turf covered banks in the centre of the
enclosure mark out the buried remains of the church. The banks which survive
up to a height of 0.5m, show the outline of a small building measuring
approximately 20m by 10m. Internally, the building is divided into two areas
by a bank which presumably serves to separate the nave from the chancel. A
description of the earthworks written in the late 19th century suggests that
the building also included a western tower, a south porch and possibly a south
aisle. These features are no longer visible in the earthworks but remains of
them will survive beneath the ground surface.
To the south of the church is a raised mound which survives to a height of
approximately 1.5m and slopes down on the southern side to the edge of the
area of protection. The mound supports a number of gravestones which are
Listed Grade II and laid out in small linear groups running roughly north to
south. Most of the gravestones are of slate, date to the 17th and 18th
centuries and were made by local craftsmen. In the late 20th century one of
the grave stones was recorded as being one of the finest in the county.
Slight earthworks are also visible in other areas of the monument particularly
to the north of the church. These suggest further buried remains but their
precise layout is difficult to define from the ground surface.
All modern field boundary fences and gates are excluded from the scheduling
although the ground beneath these is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A parish church is a building, usually of roughly rectangular outline and
containing a range of furnishings and fittings appropriate to its use for
Christian worship by a secular community, whose members gather in it on
Sundays and on the occasion of religious festivals. Children are initiated
into the Christian religion at the church's font and the dead are buried in
its churchyard. Parish churches were designed for congregational worship and
are generally divided into two main parts: the nave, which provides
accommodation for the laity, and the chancel, which is the main domain of the
priest and contains the principal altar. Either or both parts are sometimes
provided with aisles, giving additional accommodation or spaces for additional
altars. Most parish churches also possess towers, generally at the west
end, but central towers at the crossing of nave and chancel are not uncommon
and some churches have a free-standing or irregularly sited tower. Many parish
churches also possess transepts at the crossing of chancel and nave, and south
or north porches are also common. The main periods of parish church foundation
were in the 10th to 11th and 19th centuries. Most medieval churches were
rebuilt and modified on a number of occasions and hence the visible fabric of
the church will be of several different dates, with in some cases little
fabric of the first church being still easily visible.
Parish churches are found throughout England. Their distribution reflects the
density of population at the time they were founded. In regions of dispersed
settlement parishes were often large and churches less numerous. The densest
clusters of parish churches were found in thriving medieval towns. A survey of
1625 reported the existence of nearly 9000 parish churches in England. New
churches built in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries increased numbers to
around 18,000 of which 17,000 remain in ecclesiastical use. Parish churches
have always been major features of the landscape and a major focus of life for
their parishioners. They provide important insights into medieval and later
population levels or economic cycles, religious activity, artistic endeavour
and technical achievement. A significant number of surviving examples are
identified to be nationally important.

The earthwork, buried and standing remains of St Wilfrid's Church and
churchyard are well-preserved and retain significant archaeological deposits.
These will include important information about the structure, architectural
style, ritual use and status of the church. The documented history of the site
is particularly important in understanding the early medieval and subsequent
settlement of the area and its status within the wider landscape. Taken as a
whole St Wilfrid's Church and churchyard will greatly enhance our
understanding of religion and economy during the medieval period and the
position of these within the wider social landscape.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Godfrey, J T, Notes on the Churches of Nottinghamshire. Hundred of Bingham, (1907), 260-275
Throsby, J (ed), The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire by Robert Thoroton, (1790), 156
Wilkinson, R F , 'Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire' in The Ruined and Lost Churches of Nottinghamshire, , Vol. XLVI, (1942), 66-72

Source: Historic England

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