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Manorial settlement, dovecote and fragment of field system, immediately north of Marske Inn Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Saltburn, Marske and New Marske, Redcar and Cleveland

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Latitude: 54.5862 / 54°35'10"N

Longitude: -1.0184 / 1°1'6"W

OS Eastings: 463534.550124

OS Northings: 521667.892088

OS Grid: NZ635216

Mapcode National: GBR PHBD.9R

Mapcode Global: WHF81.BZ9H

Entry Name: Manorial settlement, dovecote and fragment of field system, immediately north of Marske Inn Farm

Scheduled Date: 19 January 1975

Last Amended: 14 March 2000

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018948

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32746

County: Redcar and Cleveland

Civil Parish: Saltburn, Marske and New Marske

Built-Up Area: Marske-by-the-Sea

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): North Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Marske-in-Cleveland St Mark

Church of England Diocese: York


The monument includes the remains of a manorial settlement, a dovecote and
part of a field system of medieval date, situated on a level site 1.25km from
the sea. The settlement and its dovecote were referred to in a document dated
1304 when they belonged to the Fauconberg family. In 1366 the manorial
settlement with its dovecote, orchards and gardens was assigned to Isabel, the
widow of Walter de Fauconberg.
The manorial settlement is visible as a series of earthworks which include the
foundations of buildings, enclosures and ponds contained within a rectangular
enclosure. The surrounding enclosure has maximum dimensions of 126m east to
west by 142m north to south, within banks of stone and earth on average 1m
high and spread to a maximum of 8m.
At the centre of the complex, at NZ 6356 2161, there are the foundations of a
large rectangular or L-shaped timber building, interpreted as the main manor
house. This building is about 40m long by 14m wide and is divided into at
least two compartments. Immediately to its north there are the remains of two
rectangular depressions 30m long and 10m wide flanked by earthen banks 4m
wide; these are interpreted as the sites of two fishponds, and a third
rectangular depression, 6m wide, situated immediately to their west is also
considered to be part of the pond complex. The sites of further depressions,
situated south and east of the manor house, one of which remained water
filled until relatively recently, are interpreted as further remains of the
system of fishponds. To the south of the manor house there are several linear
banks on average 0.6m high and 3.5m wide which divide the area into
rectangular enclosures interpreted as associated yards, gardens and paddocks.
At the south west corner of the site there are several rectangular platforms
which are interpreted as the sites of rectangular buildings.
Immediately adjacent to the southern wall of the surrounding enclosure, at
NZ 6356 2160, there is a raised circular platform 8m in diameter which stands
0.5m high. This is interpreted as the remains of a stone built dovecote known
from documents to have existed at the settlement in the 14th century.
At the extreme north end of the monument, beyond the north side of the
manorial enclosure, there is a fragment of a medieval open field system; this
is visible as the end of a medieval furlong or field containing prominent rig
and furrow cultivation. The rigs are on average 7m wide and stand to a maximum
height of 0.4m.
The water trough situated on the east side of the monument and the wooden post
at the north side are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground
beneath these features is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity
in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains
needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been
divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive
mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided
into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have
gradually evolved during the last 1500 years or more.
The Cleveland Bench local region is a slightly elevated, undulating lowland
skirting the northern and western sides of the North York Moors. Settlement is
largely in the form of nucleated villages which were established in the Middle
Ages, and which bear traces of their original rectilinear planning. Shrunken
and deserted villages are common, now often marked only by an isolated, still
occupied, hall.

Medieval manorial settlements, comprising small groups of houses with
associated gardens, yards and paddocks, supported communities devoted
primarily to agriculture, and acted as the foci for manorial administration.
Although the sites of many of these have been occupied continuously down to
the present day, many others declined in size or were abandoned at some time
during the medieval and post-medieval periods, particularly during the 14th
and 15th centuries. The reasons for desertion were varied but often reflected
declining economic viability, changes in land-use such as enclosure or
emparkment, or population fluctuations as a result of widespread epidemics
such as the Black Death. As a consequence of their abandonment, these
settlements are frequently undisturbed by later occupation and contain well-
preserved archaeological deposits, providing information on the diversity of
medieval settlement patterns and farming economy and on the structure and
changing fortunes of manorial communities.
Dovecotes are specialised structures designed for the breeding and keeping of
doves as a source of food and as a symbol of high social status. Most
surviving examples were built in the period between the 14th and 17th
centuries, although both earlier and later examples are documented. They were
generally freestanding structures, square or circular in plan and normally of
brick or stone, with nesting boxes built into the internal wall. They were
frequently sited at manor houses or monasteries. Whilst a relatively common
monument class, most will be considered to be of national interest, although
the majority will be listed rather than scheduled. They are also generally
regarded as an important component of local distinctiveness and character.
A medieval open field system is a collection of unenclosed open arable fields.
These large fields were subdivided into strips which were allocated to
individual tenants. The cultivation of these strips produced long ridges, and
the resultant `ridge and furrow' is the most obvious physical indication of
the open field system. Well preserved ridge and furrow, especially in its
original context adjacent to settlement earthworks, is both an important
source of information about medieval agrarian life and a distinctive
contribution to the character of the historic landscape.
The manorial settlement immediately north of Marske Inn Farm is well preserved
and retains significant archaeological deposits. It is a good example of its
type and, taken together with the associated dovecote and fragment of the
medieval field system, it will add greatly to our understanding of medieval
life and society in this area of Cleveland.

Source: Historic England


NZ62SW 04,

Source: Historic England

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