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Wayside cross and cross-base in Camborne churchyard, 10m south west of the church

A Scheduled Monument in Camborne, Cornwall

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.2133 / 50°12'47"N

Longitude: -5.3022 / 5°18'7"W

OS Eastings: 164504.495179

OS Northings: 40026.411214

OS Grid: SW645400

Mapcode National: GBR FX93.S2R

Mapcode Global: VH12J.1WTW

Entry Name: Wayside cross and cross-base in Camborne churchyard, 10m south west of the church

Scheduled Date: 28 July 1958

Last Amended: 18 September 1998

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1018490

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30450

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Camborne

Built-Up Area: Camborne

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Camborne and Tuckinghill

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross mounted in a medieval
cross-base situated to the south west of Camborne parish church.
The wayside cross, which is Listed Grade II, survives as an upright granite
shaft with a round, `wheel' head, the overall height being 1.87m. The head
measures 0.45m in diameter and is 0.23m thick. Both its principal faces,
orientated east-west, bear a relief equal limbed cross with slightly expanded
ends to the limbs and a bead around the edge. The cross motif on the west face
is well worn with smooth, rounded edges. The south side of the head has been
straightened. The shaft measures 1.42m high by 0.32m wide and is 0.26m thick.
On the east face of the shaft is faint incised decoration, consisting of
vertical lines and triangles. The south side of the shaft at the base has been
repaired with concrete. There are five holes in the shaft on the east face and
three on the west face. These holes are the result of a later reuse of the
cross as part of a well head, having the iron supports of the winding
mechanism attached to it. This shaft is cemented into a rectangular granite
cross-base. The cross-base measures 0.89m north-south by 0.74m east-west and
is 0.2m high. Embedded in the south east corner of the base is the link of an
iron chain, where once the parish stocks were attached. There is a small slate
plaque cemented to the base and incised as follows: `This ancient Cornish
cross was found at Crane, Camborne'.
This cross was first recorded by the antiquarian, Borlase, in 1750, when it
stood in the grounds of St Ia's chapel at Troon, 2.25km south east of Camborne
church. By 1896 the cross had been moved to Crane, 0.25km south west of
Camborne church, where it was in use as part of a well head. The cross was
then removed from Crane and erected in Camborne churchyard, in a cross-base
which was already in the churchyard. It has been suggested that this
cross-base is possibly part of the original churchyard cross, and may be
connected with a cross-head which is mounted on the east wall of the church.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the
medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to
serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith
amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside
crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and
otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes
linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious
function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners
and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on
pilgrimages.
Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west
England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type
of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively
few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to
remote moorland locations.
Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross,
in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an
unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and
decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces
of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or
incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was
sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear
decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the
`Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both
faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the
North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed
base or show no evidence for a separate base at all.
Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval
religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval
routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-
fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from
their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The medieval wayside cross in Camborne churchyard, 10m south west of the
church, survives reasonably well, despite having been reused to support the
winding mechanism for a well. It is a good example of a wayside cross,
originally by a chapel at Troon, on a route into Camborne from the south. Its
reuse as part of a well head and its removal to the churchyard in the 19th
century demonstrate well the changing attitudes to religion and their impact
on the local landscape since the medieval period.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
'The Cornish Magazine' in Recently Discovered Crosses, , Vol. Volume 1, (1898)
Other
Consulted July 1997, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN No. 26626,
Consulted July 1997, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN No.26627,
p.8, Thomas, DH, Historical notes and Brief Guide to Camborne Parish Church, (1989)
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 33/43/part 53; Pathfinder 1364
Source Date: 1989
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 33/43/part 53; Pathfinder 1364
Source Date: 1989
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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