Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

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Prehistoric enclosure on the west side of Scale Knoll Gill, 400m WSW of Haythwaite, Barningham Moor

A Scheduled Monument in Hope, County Durham

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Latitude: 54.4764 / 54°28'35"N

Longitude: -1.9185 / 1°55'6"W

OS Eastings: 405375.272439

OS Northings: 509009.029599

OS Grid: NZ053090

Mapcode National: GBR HJ1P.F3

Mapcode Global: WHB4S.HRM5

Entry Name: Prehistoric enclosure on the west side of Scale Knoll Gill, 400m WSW of Haythwaite, Barningham Moor

Scheduled Date: 24 October 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017437

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30475

County: County Durham

Civil Parish: Hope

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): County Durham

Church of England Parish: Barningham St Michael and All Angels

Church of England Diocese: Leeds


The monument includes a prehistoric enclosure, which had an agricultural
function, probably relating to the control of stock. It measures approximately
113m by 76m and is situated on Barningham Moor, in the modern sheep-grazing
enclosure known as Scale Knoll Allotment. It is on an area of level ground
west of Scale Knoll Gill, at the foot of a prominent knoll. The knoll is the
easternmost of four such knolls of glacial origin. The monument is bisected by
the road from Barningham to East Hope.
The north side of the enclosure is bounded by a substantial rubble bank, about
61m long, 4m wide, and 0.5m high. The south side is bounded by a stony lynchet
at the base of the slope leading up to the knoll. On the east and west sides
of the enclosure, low natural ridges lead down from the knoll, forming a
sheltered `bay'. Traces of rubble walling survive on the flanks of these
ridges. The interior of the enclosure is relatively stone free, apart from two
mounds of clearance material. One of these is sub-circular, 5m in diameter
and 0.4m high. The other heap is more linear, and is approximately 11m long,
4m wide, and 0.5m high.
The surface of the road is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground
beneath is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In the uplands of northern England a wide variety of prehistoric enclosures
can be found. These range from relatively large, rectangular enclosures with
earth and stone banks, to smaller, irregular areas enclosed by rubble and
boulder walls. Most are dated to the Bronze Age, Iron Age, or early
Romano-British period (2000 BC-200 AD). The larger regular enclosures tend to
be dated towards the later part of this period and the smaller, irregular
enclosures towards the beginning. Their variation in form, longevity, and
relationship to other monument classes provides important information on the
diversity of social organisation and land use among prehistoric communities.
The majority of enclosures would have had an agricultural function, normally
relating to the control of stock. They provide evidence of the prehistoric use
and division of the land for agricultural purposes. Survival of these
enclosures is best in upland areas where they continue to form an important
element in modern day agricultural landscapes.
Although the enclosure 400m WSW of Haythwaite has been disturbed by stone-
robbing in the past, it retains evidence of its form and location. The
enclosure forms an important part of the prehistoric landscape of Barningham
Moor, which includes numerous prehistoric carved rocks, and evidence for
prehistoric burials, settlements and the agricultural use of the land. This
site will therefore contribute to studies of such prehistoric landscapes and
the changing patterns of land use over time.

Source: Historic England

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