Ancient Monuments

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Prehistoric enclosure 530m and a rubble bank 500m east of Haythwaite in Scale Knoll Allotment, Barningham Moor

A Scheduled Monument in Hope, County Durham

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Latitude: 54.4762 / 54°28'34"N

Longitude: -1.9207 / 1°55'14"W

OS Eastings: 405233.976557

OS Northings: 508989.030962

OS Grid: NZ052089

Mapcode National: GBR HJ0P.Z5

Mapcode Global: WHB4S.GRL9

Entry Name: Prehistoric enclosure 530m and a rubble bank 500m east of Haythwaite in Scale Knoll Allotment, Barningham Moor

Scheduled Date: 24 October 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017436

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30474

County: County Durham

Civil Parish: Hope

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): County Durham

Church of England Parish: Barningham St Michael and All Angels

Church of England Diocese: Leeds


The monument includes an irregular shaped enclosure and an associated rubble
bank. It is situated on Barningham Moor, in the modern sheep-grazing enclosure
known as Scale Knoll Allotment. It is bisected by the road which runs from
Barningham to East Hope. The monument is on the flat ground at the foot of a
glacial knoll. Both the enclosure and the bank are likely to have been used
for agricultural purposes, probably for controlling stock. The bank is
interpreted as part of a wider field pattern which divided the landscape. It
may indicate agricultural activity outside the enclosure. Both are considered
to be prehistoric in date.
The enclosure is 88m by 88m. It is defined on its south and east sides by the
base of the steep slope up to the higher ground, with only a short stretch of
rubble bank showing as a stony break of slope on the south side. The enclosure
is defined on its south west, north west and north east sides by a low rubble
bank. This is most substantial on the north east side, where it is double, and
about 3m wide and 0.3m high. It is least substantial on the north west side,
where it appears as a slight crest or break of slope.
The rubble bank is distinct, and runs NNW from a rise in the road. The bank
aligns approximately with the double bank on the south side of the road. The
rubble bank is approximately 95m long, 3m wide and up to 0.4m high. It is
similar in construction to the banks on the south side of the road, being made
of sandstone rubble with an occasional large boulder.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In the uplands of northern England a wide variety of prehistoric enclosures
can be found. These range from relatively large, rectangular enclosures with
earth and stone banks, to smaller, irregular areas enclosed by rubble and
boulder walls. Most are dated to the Bronze Age, Iron Age, or early
Romano-British period (2000 BC-200 AD). The larger regular enclosures tend to
be dated towards the later part of this period and the smaller, irregular
enclosures towards the beginning. The majority have an agricultural function,
normally for controlling stock. Most are located in the vicinity of associated
prehistoric settlements. Prehistoric enclosures survive best in upland areas.
Lowland sites are normally only visible through aerial photography. Their
variation in form, longevity, and relationship to other monument classes
provides important information on the diversity of social organisation and
agricultural land use among prehistoric communities. They are an important
element of the existing landscape as they provide evidence for earlier forms
of agricultural practice.
Although this enclosure has been disturbed by stone-robbing in the past, it
retains evidence of prehistoric agricultural activity. The adjacent bank
survives well, providing evidence for agricultural activity outside the main
enclosure. This relationship between the enclosure and the bank should be
preserved. Together the bank and the enclosure form an important part of the
prehistoric landscape of Barningham Moor, which also includes evidence for
other prehistoric agricultural activity, burial practices and settlement
patterns. This site will therefore contribute to studies of such prehistoric
landscapes and the changing use of land over time.

Source: Historic England

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