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Civil War redoubt 550m south east of Valley Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Newark, Nottinghamshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.0844 / 53°5'3"N

Longitude: -0.8147 / 0°48'52"W

OS Eastings: 479490.028419

OS Northings: 354785.115809

OS Grid: SK794547

Mapcode National: GBR CLF.QTH

Mapcode Global: WHFHH.GQ9T

Entry Name: Civil War redoubt 550m south east of Valley Farm

Scheduled Date: 16 November 1964

Last Amended: 8 May 1997

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1016046

English Heritage Legacy ID: 30201

County: Nottinghamshire

Civil Parish: Newark

Built-Up Area: Newark-on-Trent

Traditional County: Nottinghamshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Nottinghamshire

Church of England Parish: Newark-upon-Trent with Coddington

Church of England Diocese: Southwell and Nottingham

Details

The monument includes the remains of a Civil War redoubt constructed by the
Parliamentarian forces besieging Newark.

The monument lies on the north bank of a brook 550m south east of Valley
Farm. The remains include earthworks defining a rectangular enclosure c.27m by
27m which is comprised of ramparts up to 0.7m high and varying between 2m and
4m in width. In the south west corner the rampart widens internally to form a
rectangular raised area c.7m by 6m which is identified as a gun platform. An
external ditch c.2m wide and 0.7m in depth abuts the ramparts to the north and
west. Beyond the ditch to the north are slight traces of a counterscarp bank.
Although obscured by a modern field boundary, a linear depression abutting the
eastern rampart is also interpreted as the remains of an external ditch on
this side. This depression lies east of the modern fence line but is included
in the scheduling.

The monument is one of several redoubts constructed by the Scots who comprised
part of the besieging Parliamentarian forces during the final siege of Newark
between November 1645 and May 1646. A contemporary plan recording the
fieldworks of the Parliamentarians clearly shows the monument and attributes
it to the Scots. The plan also depicts an artillery piece on one corner of the
redoubt. Both this and the location of the surviving platform upon the
ramparts suggest that in part at least, the redoubt was designed to provide a
clear field of fire over the Great North road, the 17th century course of
which is preserved in adjacent field boundaries.

All fences are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath them
is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The battles and sieges of the English Civil War (1642-52) between King and
Parliament were the last major active military campaigns to be undertaken on
English soil and have left their mark on the English landscape in a variety of
ways. Fieldworks are earthworks which were raised during the military
campaigns to provide temporary protection for infantry or to act as gun
emplacements. The earthworks, which may have been reinforced with revetting
and palisades, consisted of banks and ditches and varied in complexity from
simple breastworks to complex systems of banks and interconnecting trenches.
They can be recognised today as surviving earthworks or as crop or soil marks
on aerial photographs. They are recorded widely throughout England, with
concentrations in the main areas of campaigning, and have been recognised to
be unique in representing the only evidence on the ground of military
campaigns fought in England since the introduction of guns.
Newark was a key garrison held by the Royalists from the outbreak of the Civil
War in 1642 until it surrendered on the orders of the King in 1646. The town
was surrounded by a series of offensive and defensive fieldworks, many of
which survive to the present day. They are the most impressive surviving
collection of such works in England; not only do extensive remains survive,
but the whole system is recorded on two nearly contemporary plans, one by a
Royalist engineer, the other by a Parliamentarian. They thus provide a unique
opportunity for the study of the field engineering of the Civil War. All
surviving examples of the Newark siegeworks are identified to be nationally
important.

The remains of the redoubt 550m south east of Valley Farm survive particularly
well as a series of substantial earthworks and will retain significant
archaeological potential in the form of buried deposits. As a result of both
the survival of historical documentation and subsequent archaeological survey,
the redoubt will contribute particularly to understanding of the final siege
of Newark.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
The Seige of Newark by the English and Scotch Armies, (1646)
Clampe, R, A Description of the Seidge of Newarke upon Trent, (1646)
RCHME, , Newark on Trent - The Civil War Siegeworks, (1964)

Source: Historic England

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