Ancient Monuments

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Gibbie's Knowe defended settlement and later rectangular building

A Scheduled Monument in Kielder, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.2486 / 55°14'54"N

Longitude: -2.5561 / 2°33'21"W

OS Eastings: 364744.298659

OS Northings: 595076.252906

OS Grid: NY647950

Mapcode National: GBR B7LR.DB

Mapcode Global: WH8ZN.QB0P

Entry Name: Gibbie's Knowe defended settlement and later rectangular building

Scheduled Date: 29 April 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1014079

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25191

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Kielder

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Falstone with Greystead and Thorneyburn

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes a defended settlement of Iron Age date situated on a
slope above the Kielder Burn to the north. The enclosure, which is roughly
D-shaped, measures a maximum of 75m east to west by 63m north to south within
a single rampart. The rampart, constructed mainly of stone with turf facing,
is on average 4m wide and stands to a maximum height of 2.2m. There are two
entrances through the walls of the enclosure, the larger one in the eastern
side is up to 8m wide and the smaller on the south side is 3m wide. The latter
entrance is flanked by large boulders. A later field wall crosses the monument
from north to south immediately west of the large entrance, and the footings
of a later rectangular building 15m by 4m are attached to the enclosure
immediately to the north of the eastern entrance. These features are included
in the scheduling as their removal may damage important archaeological
deposits.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

During the mid-prehistoric period (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of
different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied
in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts
built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites,
sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended
settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops,
others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of
earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate),
others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen
ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber
fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built
round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept
in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed
yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single
family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction
and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through
to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD).
Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element
of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are
important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during
this period. All well-preserved examples are believed to be of national
importance.

Gibbie's Knowe defended settlement is well preserved and retains significant
archaeological deposits. It will add greatly to any study of the wider
prehistoric settlement pattern at this time.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
MacLaughlan, H, Additional Notes on Roman Roads in Northumberland, (1867), 63
Hogg, A H A, 'Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11' in A New List Of Native Sites In Northumberland, (1950), 166
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in Hill Forts and Settlements in Northumberland, (1965), 62
Other
NY 69 NW 04,

Source: Historic England

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