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Romano-British enclosed settlement, 720m north east of Catcleugh

A Scheduled Monument in Kielder, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.2411 / 55°14'27"N

Longitude: -2.5984 / 2°35'54"W

OS Eastings: 362048.992045

OS Northings: 594259.364319

OS Grid: NY620942

Mapcode National: GBR B79V.81

Mapcode Global: WH8ZN.1JYH

Entry Name: Romano-British enclosed settlement, 720m north east of Catcleugh

Scheduled Date: 19 March 1965

Last Amended: 21 November 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009669

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25109

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Kielder

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Falstone with Greystead and Thorneyburn

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the remains of a settlement of Romano-British date,
levelled into a sloping hillside commanding extensive views of the Kielder
valley. The settlement, roughly oval in shape, measures a maximum of 59m north
east to south west by 42m north west to south east, within a substantial bank
of stone and earth measuring a maximum of 5m to 6m wide and 1.5m high. There
is a well defined entrance in the north east side of the enclosure. Within the
enclosure, situated in the upper western part, there are the remains of three
stone-founded circular houses 4.2m, 9.2m and 9.5m in diameter; in addition
there are traces of the remains of at least a further two stone houses visible
as low stony platforms.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The enclosed settlement near Catcleugh is very well preserved and retains
significant archaeological deposits. It is one of few surviving examples of
this form of Romano-British settlement in this area and will contribute to our
knowledge and understanding of settlement and activity at this time.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
MacLaughlan, H, Additional Notes on Roman Roads in Northumberland, (1867), 59-60
Hogg, A H A, 'Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 3 ser 10' in A New List of the Native Sites in Northumberland, (1947), 167
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana, 4 ser 42' in Enclosed Stone Built Settlements in Northumberland, (1964), 63
Other
NY 69 SW 03,

Source: Historic England

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