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Standing cross known as Beaumond Cross

A Scheduled Monument in Newark, Nottinghamshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.0733 / 53°4'24"N

Longitude: -0.8082 / 0°48'29"W

OS Eastings: 479941.044179

OS Northings: 353563.774001

OS Grid: SK799535

Mapcode National: GBR CLN.6J2

Mapcode Global: WHFHP.K0BQ

Entry Name: Standing cross known as Beaumond Cross

Scheduled Date: 6 July 1927

Last Amended: 15 June 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012880

English Heritage Legacy ID: 23396

County: Nottinghamshire

Civil Parish: Newark

Built-Up Area: Newark-on-Trent

Traditional County: Nottinghamshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Nottinghamshire

Church of England Parish: Newark-upon-Trent with Coddington

Church of England Diocese: Southwell and Nottingham

Details

The monument includes the socle and shaft of a medieval standing cross
standing on a modern calvary of four octagonal steps. The socle or socket
stone is a moulded and decorated octagonal block with a battered (sloping)
pedestal and is approximately 1m high and 1m in diameter. It is surmounted by
a slender, tapering, fluted column which rises 3.5m to an ornate cross head
which increases the height of the shaft to approximately 4m. At the base of
the shaft is a recess containing a robed figure with raised hands. The figure
is apparently male and may be a saint or a representation of Christ. The cross
has been moved from its original location at the junction of Lombard Street,
Carter Gate, Portland Street and London Road and now stands off London Road in
Beaumond Gardens. There is some suggestion that it is an Eleanor Cross but
there is also recorded evidence to suggest that it is a memorial to Viscount
Beaumont, erected by his widow following his death at the Battle of Towmont on
29 March 1461. Records also indicate that it was repaired by Charles
Mellich in 1778 and repaired again in 1801 by the Corporation. It was moved to
its present location in c.1965 and, in addition to being scheduled, is Listed
Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Though not in its original location, Beaumond Cross is a good example of a
richly ornamented medieval standing cross with documented historical
associations. Though suffering from the effects of weathering, its
ornamentation is still reasonably well-preserved and illustrates well the art
and architectural forms of the period.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Rimmer, A, The Ancient Stone Crosses of England, (1875), 70-2
'Transactions of the Thoroton Society' in Transactions of the Thoroton Society, , Vol. 23, (1919), 15
Other
Brown, C, (1904)
Hill, Angela Shackleton, (1994)
Lawson Lowe, A E, (1876)

Source: Historic England

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