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Appuldurcombe House and Freemantle Lodge Gateway

A Scheduled Monument in Wroxall, Isle of Wight

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.6173 / 50°37'2"N

Longitude: -1.234 / 1°14'2"W

OS Eastings: 454289.699662

OS Northings: 80012.036325

OS Grid: SZ542800

Mapcode National: GBR 9DX.6VD

Mapcode Global: FRA 879F.P31

Entry Name: Appuldurcombe House and Freemantle Lodge Gateway

Scheduled Date: 9 October 1981

Last Amended: 12 November 1996

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012720

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22041

County: Isle of Wight

Civil Parish: Wroxall

Traditional County: Hampshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Isle of Wight

Church of England Parish: Godshill All Saints

Church of England Diocese: Portsmouth

Details

The monument, which falls into two separate areas, includes Appuldurcombe
House, an early 18th century country residence in the English Baroque style,
Listed Grade I, its grounds including a ha-ha, set on an east facing slope
on the south side of the Isle of Wight, and the Freemantle Lodge Gateway
c.700m to the north.

The earliest recorded occupation of the site was as a monastic cell,
established here in 1100. The precise location of the remains of this are
unclear, though they are believed to be contained within the area of the
scheduling. Subsequently an Elizabethan mansion was established. The present
house replaced this in the 18th century.

The present house, which is central to its grounds, is built of freestone with
Portland stone dressings and is ashlar faced. It is now internally a ruin and
the roof has been removed. The house has a square centre and four oblong angle
pavilions. In elevation the corner pavilions are lower than the centre, so
that the centre block dominates. The centre has two and a half storeys and the
pavilions have two. The garden side faces east, and its front is accentuated
by large Corinthian pilasters which rise from the ground. The centre has five
bays with a doorway surmounted by a roundel and swags and flanked by large
columns. The top of the centre carries a balustrade. The wings have three bays
and are two bays deep. They end in pediments, and on the inner sides the
ground floor has niches instead of windows. All the windows have raised
surrounds. The entrance side, which faces west, was originally similar, but
has no large pilasters except at the angles. The entrance was remodelled in
the 1770s by Wyatt for Sir Richard Worsley; it has a bare front wall and
doorways from the left and right. To the south is a Tuscan colonnade between
the wings, and this is also an addition by Wyatt. The house here has a seven
bay centre and wings only two bays wide.

Sir Richard Worsley landscaped the surrounding grounds in the later 18th
century. Capability Brown produced a plan in 1779. A ha-ha encloses the
grounds on the south and south west sides of the garden. It is c.9m wide
and 1.2m deep. Within the grounds are various earthworks representing
landscaping or later features, some perhaps associated with its occupation by
troops in the 1940s. The remnant of the 18th century landscape park is Listed
Grade II in the register of National Park and Gardens.

A gatehouse, Listed Grade II, is situated adjacent to the track which runs
north, away from the house. This was built in 1840, has stone window dressings
and a large bay window at its east end. It has a stone porch which is gabled
with stone dressings and a brick chimney.

A further gateway, the Freemantle Lodge Gateway, is c.700m to the north. This
ornamental gateway, Listed Grade II*, is late 18th century in date and built
of Isle of Wight stone ashlar with Portland stone dressings and cast iron
gates. It is included in the scheduling.

The manor was given by Richard de Redvers in 1090 to the abbey of Montebourg,
and a cell of that abbey was founded here in 1100, the manor forming part of
the endowment. The estate was in monastic ownership until the Worsleys' gained
possession after the Dissolution. The present Appuldurcombe House was built by
Sir Robert Worsley. The Worsleys had been one of the leading families on the
Isle of Wight ever since the early 16th century. Henry VIII visited Sir James
Worsley at Appuldurcombe in 1538. The house was built in c.1701-13 on the same
site as the Elizabethan house, about which little is known, to the design of
John James, an architect in the King's Works, and was the largest private
residence on the island. James Wyatt made alterations to the interior and
completed it for Sir Richard Worsley, the seventh and last baronet in the
direct line who died in 1805. On the death of Sir Richard the house passed to
his niece, Henrietta Anne Marie Charlotte Bridgman-Simpson, who married the
first Earl of Yarborough. He died in 1846 and their son, the second Earl, sold
the house in 1855. It subsequently became a hotel, school and Benedictine
monastery, but was not inhabited after 1909, except for temporary occupation
by troops. It was severely damaged by bombing in 1943 and a proposal was made
to demolish the house in 1945. As the house had gradually become ruinous, the
interior fittings were removed. The house has been in the care of the
Secretary of State since 1953.

The stable block and the gatehouse to the north of the house, both Listed
Grade II, signposts, information boards in the grounds, the iron fence and
stone wall on the boundary, also Listed Grade II, are excluded from the
scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included. The modern
fences and garden walls within the protected area of the Freemantle Lodge
Gateway, are excluded from the scheduling, the Gateway is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The 18th century was one of prosperity in England, due to the expanding
empire, and the nobility were able to indulge in the elaboration of their
country houses and estates. The merchant class was also amongst the patrons
for whom mansions were built in the country. The most interesting houses of
the early Georgian years are those reflecting the more massive grandeur of
late Wren and the Baroque of Vanbrugh, Hawksmoor and Archer.

Examples of the English Baroque style of architecture in country houses are
quite prominent in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, but the masterpiece of
English Baroque in the two counties is Appuldurcombe House. Built on the site
of an Elizabethan house and earlier monastic cell it survives well as a ruin.
The house and gardens are known to contain archaeological information and
environmental evidence relating to previous building on the site as well as
Appuldurcombe House and gardens and the landscape in which they were
constructed. The house and gardens are central to a variety of contemporary
features, including a ha-ha, enclosed parkland and a gatehouse. The house is
Listed Grade I and the gardens, which were designed by Capability Brown, are
Listed Grade II in the register of National Parks and Gardens. The site has a
documentary history dating back to 1009 when the manor was given to the abbey
of Montebourg.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of the County of the Isle of Wight171
Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, (1967), 729
Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, (1967), 729-730
Other
MHLG Listed Buildings (R D), (1960)

Source: Historic England

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