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Cairnfield including ring cairn and carved rocks on Low Plain, Baildon Moor

A Scheduled Monument in Baildon, Bradford

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.8586 / 53°51'31"N

Longitude: -1.7901 / 1°47'24"W

OS Eastings: 413902.137297

OS Northings: 440285.497878

OS Grid: SE139402

Mapcode National: GBR HRYT.7J

Mapcode Global: WHC92.G8SR

Entry Name: Cairnfield including ring cairn and carved rocks on Low Plain, Baildon Moor

Scheduled Date: 3 October 1935

Last Amended: 21 August 1995

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1012686

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25410

County: Bradford

Civil Parish: Baildon

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): West Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Baildon St John the Evangelist

Church of England Diocese: Leeds

Details

The monument includes a cairnfield containing a ring cairn, a disturbed round
barrow, a field system and at least 25 carved rocks.
The cairnfield occupies most of Low Plain, north of Dobrudden caravan park. It
consists of at least 19 small cairns with diameters in the range of 3m to 5m,
an excavated ring cairn of c.10m diameter, and a disturbed round barrow of
c.18m diameter. Excavation of the ring cairn in the 19th century produced an
urn containing cremated human remains.
The field system is visible as a series of low stony banks, predominantly
orientated approximately north west to south east. It includes one circular
bank c.5m diameter, which may be a hut circle. The banks are generally low and
broad, typically 0.3m or less in height and up to 3m wide.
The carved rocks are all in the cup and ring tradition, though designs
consisting mainly of cup marks predominate. The carved rocks are concentrated
in the western half of the cairnfield.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rombalds Moor is an eastern outlier of the main Pennine range lying between
the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire. The bulk of this area of 90 sq km of
rough moorland lies over 200m above sea level. The moor is particularly rich
in remains of prehistoric activity. The most numerous relics are the rock
carvings which can be found on many of the boulders and outcrops scattered
across the moor. Burial monuments, stone circles and a range of enclosed
settlements are also known.
Cairnfields are concentrations of cairns sited in close proximity to one
another. They often consist largely of clearance cairns, built with stone
cleared from the surrounding landsurface to improve its use for agriculture,
and occasionally their distribution can be seen to define field plots.
However, funerary cairns are also frequently incorporated, although without
excavation it may be impossible to determine which cairns contain burials.
Clearance cairns were constructed during the Neolithic period (from c.3400
BC), although the majority of examples appear to be the result of field
clearance which began during the earlier Bronze Age and continued into the
later Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). The considerable longevity and variation in
the size, content and association of cairnfields provide important information
on the development and associations of land use and agricultural practices.
Cairnfields also retain information on the diversity of beliefs and social
organisation during the prehistoric period.

Prehistoric field systems in the north of England take a variety of forms.
Regular and irregular types of prehistoric field systems are widespread
throughout the Pennine Range. Regular field systems with rectilinear fields
bounded by low rubble banks are particularly typical of the southern Pennine
areas. They are considered to date from the Iron Age or the Romano-British
period. Closer dating may be provided by their relationships to other classes
of monument which were in use for shorter periods of time. Field systems are
particularly representative of their period and provide an important insight
into early farming practice and the way in which the wider landscape was
subdivided and used.
Prehistoric rock carving is found on natural boulders and rock outcrops in
many areas of upland Britain. It is especially common in the north of England
in Northumberland, Durham, and North and West Yorkshire. The most common form
of decoration is the `cup' marking, where small cup-like hollows are worked
into the surface of the rock. These cups may be surrounded by one or more
`rings'. Single pecked lines extending from the cup through the rings may also
exist, providing the design with a `tail'. Other shapes and patterns also
occur but are less frequent. Carvings may occur singly, in small groups, or
may cover extensive areas of rock surface. They date to the Late Neolithic and
Bronze Age periods (2800-c.500 BC) and provide one our most important insights
into prehistoric `art'. The exact meaning of the designs remains unknown, but
they may be interpreted as sacred or religious symbols. All positively
identified prehistoric rock carvings sites will normally be identified as
nationally important.
This cairnfield survives well and forms an important part of the prehistoric
landscape on Rombalds Moor.
The field system has been damaged by later stone robbing and coal mining
activity; much, however, still remains, and it presents important evidence for
the later prehistoric exploitation of this part of Rombalds Moor.
The carvings on all 25 carved rocks survive well, and they will make an
important contribution to the understanding of the wider grouping of carved
rocks.
Together these remains form one of the tightest groupings of prehistoric
remains in this area of moorland. It will provide a significant insight into
prehistoric activity in the area.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 111
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 111
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 112
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 113
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 113
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 114
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 114
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 51
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 51
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 51
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 51
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 52
Colls, J M N, 'Archaeologia' in Archaeologia, , Vol. 31, (1846), 299
Colls, J M N, 'Archaeologia' in Early Remains Discovered in Yorkshire, (1846), Plate 8
Colls, J M N, 'Archaeologia' in Early Remains Discovered in Yorkshire, (1846)

Source: Historic England

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