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Enclosed settlement known as `Soldier's Trench' including a cup-marked rock

A Scheduled Monument in Baildon, Bradford

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Latitude: 53.8478 / 53°50'52"N

Longitude: -1.8031 / 1°48'11"W

OS Eastings: 413047.625002

OS Northings: 439084.9671

OS Grid: SE130390

Mapcode National: GBR HRVY.FD

Mapcode Global: WHC92.8KL1

Entry Name: Enclosed settlement known as `Soldier's Trench' including a cup-marked rock

Scheduled Date: 3 October 1935

Last Amended: 15 December 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009718

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25257

County: Bradford

Civil Parish: Baildon

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): West Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Baildon St John the Evangelist

Church of England Diocese: Leeds


The monument includes the subcircular enclosure known as `Soldier's Trench'
situated on Bracken Hall Green. At various times this site has been referred
to as a `stone circle', but this appears to be a misnomer, as on closer
inspection, the site is an enclosed settlement, defined by a complex of rubble
banks, orthostat walls, and combinations of these two. It does have an
approximately circular form, artificially enhanced by placement of stones
around the banks in 1953 and 1954. The interior is, however, subdivided by
sandstone rubble banks. Possible entrances to the enclosure can be seen where
large stones are upright next to a break in the associated rubble bank. There
is a short stretch of facing stones visible on the internal side of the bank
in the south east arc of the enclosure.
Outside the enclosure, but attached to and extending from it on the south and
north sides, are further stony banks. The bank on the north side is 3m long
and 2m wide, and the bank on the south side is 15m long and 3m wide. These
stretches of bank are included in the monument, as they are directly
associated with the main enclosure.
The enclosure and attached external walls are part of a wider complex of
remains in this area of moor. The most obvious remains are those of other
linear banks which perhaps defined field systems associated with the Soldier's
Trench enclosure. As the full nature and extent of these further features are
not yet fully understood, they are not included in the scheduling.
Included in this monument is a cup marked stone which is embedded in the bank
in the south west side of the main subcircular enclosure. This rock is a
gritstone boulder with 4 or 5 shallow cups and one deeper cup, clustered on
the eastern, higher end, of its upper surface.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rombalds Moor is an eastern outlier of the main Pennine range lying between
the valleys of the Wharfe and the Aire. The bulk of this area of 90 sq km of
rough moorland lies over 200m above sea level. The moor is particularly rich
in remains of prehistoric activity. The most numerous relics are the rock
carvings which can be found on many of the boulders and outcrops scattered
across the moor. Burial monuments, stone circles and a range of enclosed
settlements are also known.
Within the landscape of Rombalds Moor are many discrete plots of land enclosed
by stone walls or banks of stone and earth, most of which date to the Bronze
Age (c.2000-700 BC), although earlier and later examples may also exist. They
were constructed as protected areas for settlement, stock penning, or crop
growing. They may be subdivided into a series of smaller enclosures; those
used for settlement may retain evidence of the round huts originally located
within them. The size and form of enclosures vary considerably, depending on
their particular function. Their variation in form, longevity and relationship
to other monument classes provide important information on the diversity of
social organisation and farming practices among prehistoric communities. They
are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion
of surviving examples are worthy of protection.

Prehistoric rock carving is found on natural boulders and rock outcrops in
many areas of upland Britain. It is especially common in the north of England
in Northumberland, Durham, and North and West Yorkshire. The most common form
of decoration is the `cup' marking, where small cup-like hollows are worked
into the surface of the rock. These cups may be surrounded by one or more
`rings'. Single pecked lines extending from the cup through the rings may also
exist, providing the design with a `tail'. Other shapes and patterns also
occur but are less frequent. Carvings may occur singly, in small groups, or
may cover extensive areas of rock surface. They date to the Late Neolithic and
Bronze Age periods (2800-c.500 BC) and provide one our most important insights
into prehistoric `art'. The exact meaning of the designs remains unknown, but
they may be interpreted as sacred or religious symbols. All positively
identified prehistoric rock carvings sites will normally be identified as
nationally important.
This enclosure is reasonably well preserved and contains within it an earlier
carved rock, indicating the continued use of the moor over time. The enclosure
is also surrounded by a series of banks which are interpreted as the remains
of a contemporary field system.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Hedges, J D (ed), The Carved Rocks on Rombalds Moor, (1986), 108
'Archaeology Group Bulletin' in Archaeology Group Bulletin, (1954), 3
'Archaeology Group Bulletin' in Archaeology Group Bulletin, , Vol. 11/1, (1966), 1

Source: Historic England

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