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Group of four round barrows 300m north west of the junction between the Ridgeway and Green Street on Avebury Down

A Scheduled Monument in Preshute, Wiltshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.4389 / 51°26'19"N

Longitude: -1.8244 / 1°49'27"W

OS Eastings: 412301.698336

OS Northings: 171111.859237

OS Grid: SU123711

Mapcode National: GBR 4WR.MLD

Mapcode Global: VHB45.B3C9

Entry Name: Group of four round barrows 300m north west of the junction between the Ridgeway and Green Street on Avebury Down

Scheduled Date: 17 February 1927

Last Amended: 5 September 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008496

English Heritage Legacy ID: 21739

County: Wiltshire

Civil Parish: Preshute

Traditional County: Wiltshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Wiltshire

Details

The monument includes four prominent round barrows 300m north west of the
junction between the Ridgeway and Green Street on Avebury Down. The barrows
occupy a position on a false crest, facing west and overlooking the Kennet
valley and the Avebury henge monument. The barrows form a line running from
north to south and roughly parallel to the Ridgeway which is c.260m uphill to
the east.
From south to north the individual barrows can be described as follows:
(SU12297108) A well preserved bowl barrow, the mound of which measures 20m in
diameter and stands up to 2m high. There is a triangular sarsen block with 1m
wide sides protruding from the south west side of the mound. Surrounding the
mound and surviving as an open feature c.5m wide and 0.3m deep is a quarry
ditch from which material was obtained during its construction. The barrow
was partially excavated in the 1840s by Merewether who found a cremation
burial in a cist covered by a large sarsen stone. A secondary cremation was
found slightly higher in the mound and this was accompanied by Bronze Age
pottery sherds. Further finds of Middle and Late Bronze Age pottery have been
made over the years, being thrown up by rabbits burrowing into the mound.
(SU12317111) A well preserved bowl barrow, the mound of which measures 18m in
diameter and stands up to 1.2m high. There is a slight depression in the
summit of the mound caused by antiquarian investigation. This measures c.1m
across, up to 0.2m deep and is due to the subsidence of the back-filled
material. Surrounding the mound is a quarry ditch which survives as an
earthwork 3m wide and 0.3m deep. The antiquarian investigation was carried
out by Merewether in the 1840s when he discovered a primary cremation burial
overlain by four layers of sarsens, Bronze Age pottery sherds and burnt bones.
(SU12307113) A well preserved pond barrow which has a central pond 10m in
diameter and 0.3m deep. This is surrounded by an outer bank which is 3m wide
and stands up to 0.3m high. The barrow was partially excavated by Merewether
who found fragments of animal bones, charcoal and pottery sherds.
(SU12307115) A bell barrow, the mound of which measures 14m in diameter and
stands up to 1.5m high. There is a slight depression in the centre of the
mound measuring c.1m across and 0.2m deep. The mound is surrounded by a
narrow berm c.1m wide and a quarry ditch 3.2m wide and 0.3m deep. Although
there is a depression at the centre of this mound, there is no record of the
barrow having been excavated.
The four barrows form a highly visible and well preserved feature in the
Avebury landscape.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for
ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age
periods. Two of the best known and earliest recognised, with references in the
17th century, are around Avebury and Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a
World Heritage Site. In the Avebury area, the henge monument itself, the West
Kennet Avenue, the Sanctuary, West Kennet long barrow, Windmill Hill
causewayed enclosure and the enigmatic Silbury Hill are well-known. Whilst the
other Neolithic long barrows, the many Bronze Age round barrows and other
associated sites are less well-known, together they define one of the richest
and most varied areas of Neolithic and Bronze Age ceremonial and ritual
monuments in the country. Bell barrows, the most visually impressive form of
round barrow, are funerary monuments dating to the Early and Middle Bronze
Age, with most examples belonging to the period 1600-1300 BC. They occur
either in isolation or in round barrow cemeteries and were constructed as
single or multiple mounds covering burials, often in pits, and surrounded by
an enclosure ditch. The burials are frequently accompanied by weapons,
personal ornaments and pottery and appear to be those of aristocratic
individuals, usually men. Bell barrows are rare nationally, with less than 250
known examples, most of which are in Wessex. All examples are considered
worthy of protection.

Pond barrows are ceremonial or funerary monuments of the Early to Middle
Bronze Age. The term `barrow' is something of a misnomer as, rather than a
mound, they were constructed as regular circular depressions with an embanked
rim and, occasionally, an outer ditch. Where excavation has occurred, single
or multiple pits or cists, occasionally containing human remains, have usually
been discovered. Pond barrows occur either singly or, more frequently, within
groups of round barrows. Pond barrows are the rarest form of round barrow,
with about sixty examples recorded nationally and a distribution mainly
confined to Wiltshire and Dorset.
Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments
dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most
examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as
earthen or rubble mounds, normally ditched, which covered single or multiple
burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and were
often a focus for burials in later periods. There are over 10,000 nationally
and around 320 in the Avebury area.
Despite partial excavation, the group of four prominent Bronze Age round
barrows 300m north west of the junction between the Ridgeway and Green Street
survive well and contain archaeological and environmental information relating
to the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Merewether, J, 'Proceedings' in Proceedings, , Vol. 1849, (1849)
Merewether, J, 'Proceedings' in Barrow 7, (1849)
Other
Fig j and text (pag: 85-6), Merewether, J, Barrow 9, Proceedings, (1849)
Fig j and text (pag: 85-6), Merewether, J, Barrow 8, Proceedings, (1849)
SU 17 SW 53 C, RCHM(E), Tumuli, (1974)
SU 17 SW 637, CAO, Bell barrow with depression at centre, (1989)
SU 17 SW 639, CAO, Bowl barrow, ditched, (1989)

Source: Historic England

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