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Roman settlement and associated industrial remains and field system north-east of Winthill Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Banwell, North Somerset

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.3218 / 51°19'18"N

Longitude: -2.8664 / 2°51'59"W

OS Eastings: 339717.906493

OS Northings: 158432.012809

OS Grid: ST397584

Mapcode National: GBR JC.WTZV

Mapcode Global: VH7CT.81HK

Entry Name: Roman settlement and associated industrial remains and field system north-east of Winthill Farm

Scheduled Date: 2 October 1967

Last Amended: 20 June 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008296

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22814

County: North Somerset

Civil Parish: Banwell

Traditional County: Somerset

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Somerset

Details

The monument includes a series of well-defined earthworks and building
platforms which represent a Roman settlement comprising a centrally placed
structure 10m square, its associated industrial remains, and a field system,
situated on a steep south-facing slope overlooking the Lox Yeo River. A coin
hoard dating to the middle of the fourth century AD was recovered from beneath
the stone floor slabs of the structure during partial excavation in 1950,
confirming a Roman date. A large quantity of Roman pottery and further coins
dating from the mid fourth century have also been recovered from the area of
the site in addition to a rare inscribed Rhenish glass bowl and evidence for
industrial and agricultural activity.
Earthworks surrounding the settlement include a series of terraces cut into
the hillside, providing levelled areas used for building platforms. Also
surrounding the settlement is a series of clearly defined field boundaries and
lynchets, some of the lynchets standing to a height of c.0.5m. The modern
field boundaries in the south and east of the monument are likely to follow
the courses of earlier Roman boundaries, as pottery dating from AD 40-80 has
been recovered from one of the lynchets, demonstrating its early origins.
A large linear quarry or lead rake running north-south through the centre of
the monument immediately west of the settlement, together with excavated
evidence for metal smelting, suggests that industrial activity was important
here and may have been the main function of the settlement.
Burials from the site have been variously described as Roman and medieval. In
view of the strong Roman connection for the settlement, a Roman date for these
features is believed most likely.
The free standing wall is excluded from the scheduling although the ground
beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The site at Winthill Farm is an example of a small Roman lead mining
settlement with associated agricultural remains. Such sites are a rare
occurrence nationally though several are known to exist in the area in
and immediately surrounding the Mendip Hills.
Lead mining was an important aspect of the Roman economy: lead and tin were
alloyed with copper to make bronze, or with each other for pewter or solder.
Lead on its own was invaluable for sealing roofs or water tanks, and for
making pipes for use in the construction of water supply systems and baths.
The area in and around the Mendip Hills is important for understanding the
role of industrial processes in the Roman economy. Sites such as that at
Winthill Farm are particularly valuable as they survive in the form of
earthwork remains and are known from previous partial excavation to contain
archaeological evidence relating to the site's occupation and use.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hunt, J E, 'Journal of the Axbridge Caving Gp Archaeol Soc' in Excavations at Winthill, Somerset, , Vol. 3(ii), (1957), 5
Hunt, J E, 'Journal of Axbridge Caving Gp Archaeol Soc' in Excavations at Winthill 1954-56, , Vol. 3(ii), (1957), 5
Other
Details of results of excavations, Details of results of excavations,
Results of excavations, Results of excavations,

Source: Historic England

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