Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

This site is entirely user-supported. See how you can help.

Romano-British settlement and regular aggregate field system north of Yanwath Wood

A Scheduled Monument in Yanwath and Eamont Bridge, Cumbria

Approximate Location Map
Large Map »
Street or Overhead View
Contributor Photos »

If Google Street View is available, the image is from the best available vantage point looking, if possible, towards the location of the monument. Where it is not available, the satellite view is shown instead.

Coordinates

Latitude: 54.6269 / 54°37'36"N

Longitude: -2.7441 / 2°44'38"W

OS Eastings: 352056.709154

OS Northings: 526001.805572

OS Grid: NY520260

Mapcode National: GBR 9G8Y.Q5

Mapcode Global: WH81B.TYGV

Entry Name: Romano-British settlement and regular aggregate field system north of Yanwath Wood

Scheduled Date: 25 November 1938

Last Amended: 14 April 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008238

English Heritage Legacy ID: 23677

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Yanwath and Eamont Bridge

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Clifton St Cuthbert

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Details

The monument includes a Romano-British settlement and its associated regular
aggregate field system. It is located on the west side of the River Lowther;
the settlement occupies the eastern end of a plateau overlooking the river
floodplain. Its associated field system extends to the east down the hillslope
towards the river. The settlement includes upstanding earthworks whereas the
field system has been identified from cropmarks visible on aerial photographs
which clearly show infilled ditches, buried walls and trackways.
The settlement includes a stone and earth enclosure bank up to 7m wide and 1m
high which encloses a roughly oval area measuring approximately 75m by 73m.
The enclosure is subdivided into at least eight sub-rectangular enclosures or
stock pens and also includes a low mound approximately 4m in diameter
interpreted as a possible hut platform. There are four entrances into the
enclosure; one on the north-west side and three at the east side. The
associated field system visible in aerial photographs includes three large
sub-rectangular fields to the east of the settlement enclosure; a small
rectangular field, itself containing a sub-rectangular enclosure with a
south-facing entrance, is located at the eastern end of the southernmost of
the large fields. Three lengths of trackway and numerous other linear features
lying to the north, south and east of the settlement enclosure have also been
identified on the aerial photographs and have been interpreted as field
boundaries.
In the late 1970's limited excavation of some of the features identified from
aerial photographs confirmed the existence of a trackway to the east of the
settlement and running between the central and northern of the large
sub-rectangular fields. On the southern side of the enclosure excavation
through a bank noted by survey in 1936, but since levelled by agricultural
operations, found the base of a stone wall and ditch interpreted as the
south-western boundary of the field system. Within the ditch sherds of samian
pottery were found and suggest that it became silted up at the end of the
second century AD. To the north of the enclosure excavation through another
bank noted by the survey found traces of a more substantial wall interpreted
as forming the north-western boundary of the field system.
All modern field boundaries, telegraph poles, gateposts, a small brick and
concrete reservoir, a water trough, and the surface of a farmtrack are all
excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all these features,
is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The Romano-British settlement north of Yanwath Wood survives well and is a
rare example of a site in a lowland situation which retains upstanding
earthworks. The remains preserve considerable detail of the layout of the
site, and will facilitate further study of Romano-British settlement patterns
in the area. Additionally an associated field system is clearly visible on
aerial photographs and has been confirmed by limited excavation. Such field
systems provide important evidence of a carefully planned reorganisation of
landscape and definition of landholding. Their articulation with other
contemporary archaeological features, such as land boundaries, settlements,
farmsteads and enclosures, makes them worthy of protection.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Higham, N J, 'Rome and the Brigantes. The Impact of Rome on Northern England' in Native Settlements West of the Pennines, (1980), 41-8
Higham, N J, 'Rome and the Brigantes. The Impact of Rome on Northern England' in Native Settlements West of the Pennines, (1980), 45
Higham, N J, 'Rome and the Brigantes. The Impact of Rome on Northern England' in Native Settlements West of the Pennines, (1980), 41-8
Higham, N J, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in A Romano-British Farm Site and Field System at Yanwath Wood, (1983), 49-58
Higham, N J, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in A Romano-British Farm Site and Field System at Yanwath Wood, (1983), 49-58
Other
AP's cont, 37A: 92,22-4: 149,21-3,27, AP No's STJ BF 6: MU CS 152,26-29,31-3: 82,6,21: MU CS 93,34-5A,,
AP's cont, 37A: 92,22-4: 149,21-3,27, AP No's STJ BF 6: MU CS 152,26-29,31-3: 82,6,21: MU CS 93,34-5A,,
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)

Source: Historic England

Other nearby scheduled monuments

AncientMonuments.uk is an independent online resource and is not associated with any government department. All government data published here is used under licence. Please do not contact AncientMonuments.uk for any queries related to any individual ancient or schedued monument, planning permission related to scheduled monuments or the scheduling process itself.

AncientMonuments.uk is a Good Stuff website.