Ancient Monuments

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Crylla Cross, 180m south-west of Crylla Farm

A Scheduled Monument in St. Cleer, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.507 / 50°30'25"N

Longitude: -4.4872 / 4°29'13"W

OS Eastings: 223730.584876

OS Northings: 70420.360854

OS Grid: SX237704

Mapcode National: GBR ND.KK6R

Mapcode Global: FRA 17HQ.FNV

Entry Name: Crylla Cross, 180m south-west of Crylla Farm

Scheduled Date: 7 March 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007758

English Heritage Legacy ID: 24258

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: St. Cleer

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: St Cleer

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The monument includes a medieval wayside cross, the Crylla Cross, situated on
a verge at the eastern side of a road on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor. It
is located in its original position on an ancient route across the Moor.
The Crylla cross survives as a granite cross-shaft, its head fractured off and
missing. The shaft is 1.14m high, leaning away from the road, and is of
sub-rectangular section, 0.33m wide and tapering from 0.25m thick at the base
to 0.15m thick at the fractured upper end. An incised groove runs up the
midline of each of the two principal faces of the shaft. The cross is situated
on an ancient route across Bodmin Moor linking the River Fowey valley with the
Withey Brook via the Siblyback valley. Most of this route is now disused and
blocked by later enclosure, but its course was also marked by another medieval
wayside cross, now relocated, and a prehistoric standing stone is located near
its northern end. The northern sector of this route passes by extensive
deserted medieval settlements and their field systems.
An area 2m wide beyond the base of the cross is included in the scheduling to
ensure its protection. Within this area the surface of the metalled road
passing west of the cross is excluded from the scheduling but the ground
beneath is included.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been
recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The
Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the
best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of
prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human
exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The
well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field
systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains
provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land
use through time. Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross
erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD.
In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the
Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the
traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in
difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly
used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes which might have a more
specifically religious function, including providing access to religious sites
for parishioners and funeral processions. Wayside crosses vary considerably in
form and decoration but several regional types have been identified. The
Cornish wayside crosses form one such group. The commonest type includes a
round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross were
carved. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ.
Less common forms include the `Latin' cross, where the cross-head itself is
shaped as the arms of an unenclosed cross and, much rarer, the simple slab
with a low-relief cross on both faces. Over 400 crosses of all types are
recorded in Cornwall. Of the 35 surviving on Bodmin Moor, 21 are recorded as
wayside crosses. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding
of medieval routeways, settlement patterns and the development of sculptural
traditions. All wayside crosses which survive as earth-fast monuments, except
those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations,
are considered worthy of protection.

Despite the loss of its head, the survival of the substantially intact shaft
of the Crylla Cross in its original location on a medieval route over the Moor
provides a good example of the relationship between such crosses and early
thoroughfares and shows how wayside crosses provide evidence for former
thoroughfares which have since lapsed into disuse. The longevity both of
certain routeways and of upright route-markers is demonstrated well by the
presence of a prehistoric standing stone on this route. The proximity of the
cross's original location to the medieval settlements and field systems along
those routes provides the broader medieval context within which this wayside
cross functioned.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1297,
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 27/37; Pathfinder 1339; Bodmin Moor (East)
Source Date: 1988

Source: Historic England

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