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Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement and associated field system on Wickerslack Moor

A Scheduled Monument in Crosby Ravensworth, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.5336 / 54°32'0"N

Longitude: -2.6208 / 2°37'14"W

OS Eastings: 359923.486256

OS Northings: 515543.408971

OS Grid: NY599155

Mapcode National: GBR BJ40.DM

Mapcode Global: WH933.Q95V

Entry Name: Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement and associated field system on Wickerslack Moor

Scheduled Date: 10 November 1938

Last Amended: 4 February 1993

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007576

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22478

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Crosby Ravensworth

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Crosby Ravensworth St Lawrence

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument is a Romano-British enclosed stone hut circle settlement and
associated field system located on a plateau of Wickerslack Moor adjacent to
where the ground begins to fall away into the Lyvennet valley. It is one of a
number of similar sites located around the head of the Lyvennet valley and
includes the turf-covered stone walls up to 1m high of at least eight hut
circles varying in internal diameter between c.3.6m - 6.4m. There are three
associated fields, two sub-circular and one rectilinear, to the east of the
huts, with traces of a stock pen in the southerly field. There is a second
stock pen located between this southerly field and two huts to the west. The
western part of the site, including the area occupied by the huts, is enclosed
by a rectilinear boundary wall that joins the southern field boundary wall
and, although not well defined on the north-east, appears to have joined up
with the northern field boundary wall. Limited antiquarian investigation of
some of the hut circles located paved floors and hearthstones.
The site would have been in use during the Roman conquest of the north. It
lies within an area which was occupied by the Carvetii tribe.
A field boundary on the monument's south side is excluded from the scheduling
although the ground beneath it is included

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The monument is a good example of a Romano-British settlement with an
associated field system. Its earthworks survive well and preserve much detail
of the layout of the settlement. It is one of a group of similar settlements
at the head of the Lyvennet valley and will contribute to the study of
Romano-British settlement patterns.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. New Ser.' in Prehistoric Settlements in Crosby Ravensworth, , Vol. XXXIII, (1933), 216-7
Simpson, , 'Antiq Jour' in Antiq Journal, , Vol. XVIII, (), 37
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)
SMR No. 1551, Cumbria SMR, British Settlement on Wickerslack Moor, Crosby Ravensworth, (1985)

Source: Historic England

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