Ancient Monuments

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Enclosure 1/4 mile (400m) north of Hill Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Crosscanonby, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.7422 / 54°44'31"N

Longitude: -3.443 / 3°26'34"W

OS Eastings: 307200.095995

OS Northings: 539535.06779

OS Grid: NY072395

Mapcode National: GBR 4FDL.DV

Mapcode Global: WH6ZH.22RD

Entry Name: Enclosure 1/4 mile (400m) N of Hill Farm

Scheduled Date: 26 November 1965

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007205

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 173

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Crosscanonby

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Cross Canonby St John the Evangelist

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


Settlement enclosure, 450m NNE of Hill Farm.

Source: Historic England


This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 01 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes the remains of a settlement enclosure of Iron Age date, situated on a slight rise on low lying ground close to Allonby Bay. The sub-rectangular enclosure, which is preserved as a cropmark, has rounded corners. It measures approximately 96m by 81m and is surrounded by a ditch.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

During the earlier Iron Age (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate), others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD). Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period.

The settlement enclosure 450m NNE of Hill Farm is preserved as an earthwork and is representative of its period. The monument will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment within below ground features such as pits and ditches and within any remaining upstanding features. The monument provides insight into the character of settlement during the Iron Age period and its value is increased by its presence within a landscape littered with archaeological monuments dating from the prehistoric to the post-medieval period. The great majority of these sites relate to the Iron Age and the Romano-British periods and include the Roman military defences of the Cumbrian coast. Taken together these monuments provide an excellent resource for understanding the significant socio-political changes that occurred during the Roman occupation of Britain.

Source: Historic England


PastScape Monument No:- 8982, 1466731

Source: Historic England

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