Ancient Monuments

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Settlement one mile (1610m) north east of Crosscanonby

A Scheduled Monument in Crosscanonby, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.7455 / 54°44'43"N

Longitude: -3.4345 / 3°26'4"W

OS Eastings: 307757.252112

OS Northings: 539893.230797

OS Grid: NY077398

Mapcode National: GBR 4FGK.7N

Mapcode Global: WH6Z9.6ZSD

Entry Name: Settlement one mile (1610m) NE of Crosscanonby

Scheduled Date: 18 January 1966

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007197

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 201

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Crosscanonby

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Hayton St James

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Summary

Settlement enclosure, 963m north east of East Farm.

Source: Historic England

Details

This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 02 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes the remains of a settlement enclosure of Iron Age/Romano-British date, situated on a ground overlooking the Cumbrian coastline to the west. The sub-oval enclosure, which is preserved as a cropmark, is surrounded by a curvilinear ditch with traces of an internal bank and measures approximately 71m by 82m.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.

The settlement enclosure 963m north east of East Farm is preserved as a cropmark and its below ground features such as its ditch will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment and environmental deposits relating to the use of the surrounding landscape. The monument provides insight into the character of settlement and subsistence during the Iron Age/Romano-British period. The significance of the monument is increased by its presence within a landscape littered with archaeological monuments dating from the prehistoric to the post-medieval period. The majority of these sites relate to the Iron Age and the Romano-British periods and include the Roman military defences of the Cumbrian coast. Taken together these monuments provide an excellent resource for understanding the significant socio-political changes that occurred during the Roman occupation of Britain.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
PastScape Monument No:- 8979

Source: Historic England

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