Ancient Monuments

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Enclosed settlement and hut circles, 250m NNE of Borwens

A Scheduled Monument in Middleton, Cumbria

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Latitude: 54.2499 / 54°14'59"N

Longitude: -2.5717 / 2°34'18"W

OS Eastings: 362844.415382

OS Northings: 483948.556174

OS Grid: SD628839

Mapcode National: GBR BMH9.09

Mapcode Global: WH94H.GFLT

Entry Name: Enclosed settlement and hut circles, 250m NNE of Borwens

Scheduled Date: 12 January 1973

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007196

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 199

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: Middleton

Traditional County: Westmorland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Kirkby Lonsdale Team Ministry

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle


The monument includes the remains of an Iron Age/Romano-British enclosed settlement including at least two hut circles. It is situated on a slight knoll on a gentle west facing slope. The enclosure is sub-oval in plan measuring internally approximately 35m east to west and is defined by an earth and stone bank which has inturned entrances on its east and west sides. Within the enclosure, surviving as lower earthworks are low banks forming at least six internal divisions along with two hut circles, one of which is located besides the east entrance.

PastScape Monument No:- 44109
Cumbria HER:- 2572

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.
The enclosed settlement and hut circles, 250m NNE of Borwens are well-preserved as earthworks and the monument will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment and environmental deposits relating to the use of the surrounding landscape. The monument is a good example and provides an insight into the character of settlement and subsistence during the Iron Age/Romano-British period.

Source: Historic England

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