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Romano-British enclosed settlement, 405m east of Fowberry Moor

A Scheduled Monument in Chatton, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.5399 / 55°32'23"N

Longitude: -1.9644 / 1°57'51"W

OS Eastings: 402341.905837

OS Northings: 627353.799167

OS Grid: NU023273

Mapcode National: GBR G4QC.HX

Mapcode Global: WH9ZQ.S0RV

Entry Name: Romano-British enclosed settlement, 405m east of Fowberry Moor

Scheduled Date: 25 August 1954

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1006518

English Heritage Legacy ID: ND 299

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Chatton

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Chatton with Chillingham

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the remains of an enclosed Romano-British settlement situated near the summit of a rise overlooking Fowberry Moor to the west. The enclosure, sub-circular in shape, is approximately 44m in diameter and is surrounded by a single earth and stone bank, which is roughly 1m to 2m high and 6m to 7m wide. The bank is steep on its external side with a more gradual slope internally and is broken by a single 2m wide entrance on its north east side. The interior of the settlement is divided into two partitions by low earthworks and there are at least two hut circles. The largest hut circle is visible a circular scooped depression 10m in diameter and is situated against the north west bank. The stone wall which crosses the monument is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath it is included.

SOURCES
PastScape Monument No:- 5698
NMR:- NU02NW40
Northumberland HER:- 3317

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.
The Romano-British enclosed settlement 405m east of Fowberry Moor is well-preserved and retains significant archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment and environmental deposits relating to the nature and use of the surrounding landscape. It will provide insight into indigenous responses to the Roman occupation of Britain in the area north of Hadrian Wall.

Source: Historic England

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