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Three quadrangular earthworks on Banstead Heath

A Scheduled Monument in Tadworth and Walton, Surrey

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.2832 / 51°16'59"N

Longitude: -0.2337 / 0°14'1"W

OS Eastings: 523277.796955

OS Northings: 155267.095691

OS Grid: TQ232552

Mapcode National: GBR B1.ZR3

Mapcode Global: VHGS2.W0TM

Entry Name: Three quadrangular earthworks on Banstead Heath

Scheduled Date: 30 November 1925

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1005944

English Heritage Legacy ID: SU 45

County: Surrey

Electoral Ward/Division: Tadworth and Walton

Traditional County: Surrey

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Surrey

Church of England Parish: Tadworth The Good Shepherd

Church of England Diocese: Southwark

Summary

Three stock enclosures on Banstead Heath, 350m south-west of Millfield House

Source: Historic England

Details

This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 17/10/14. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

DESCRIPTION
The monument includes three stock enclosures of probable medieval date situated on the north part of Banstead Heath, all within 650m of Millfield House. Two lie within 200m east of the B2032 and another is 200m to the west. The stock enclosures are visible as well-defined earthworks of varying sizes on a gently sloping area of the Heath. The most prominent earthwork lies closest to Millfield House and is denoted by three rectangular-shaped banks and ditches. There is a causewayed entrance midway along the south-east side. The site was excavated in 1928 and finds included three pottery sherds of 16th or early 17th century date and a portion of pottery of possible Romano-British origin. The second enclosure, approximately 250m from Millfield House, is denoted by a bank and outer ditch with a causewayed entrance on the east side. A third enclosure lies approximately 560m to the west of Millfield House. It is denoted by a bank 0.2m high and outer ditch 0.5m deep and encloses an area of nearly an acre. A causewayed entrance is located midway along the north-west side. The south-west corner has been disturbed by gravel digging at a later date.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Stock enclosures of medieval and later date provided winter shelter and corralling for beasts ranging over open pasture. In south east England, they are to be found in relatively remote regions located some distance from the farmstead with which they were associated. They vary in size and shape and reflect local building techniques, styles and materials. They usually survive as a level area surrounded by low banks flanked by construction ditches. Some enclosures would have been further protected by timber fences and gates and smaller examples may have been roofed. Surviving largely in downland areas of less intensive modern land use, medieval and post-medieval stock enclosures provide evidence for pastoral practices in south east England which have left few other traces in the landscape. As a relatively rare monument type, those examples which survive well as upstanding monuments and/or which are documented by part excavation or contemporary records, are considered to merit protection.

The three stock enclosures on Banstead Heath, 350m south-west of Millfield House survive well and are likely to contain important archaeological and environmental information relating to their construction and original use. The enclosures form prominent features in the landscape, which provide a significant insight into settlement patterns as well as farming methods and practices in this part of Surrey.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
Surrey HER 902, 2495, 2496.

Source: Historic England

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