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Roman settlement at Glasshouse Wood

A Scheduled Monument in Kenilworth, Warwickshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.3427 / 52°20'33"N

Longitude: -1.546 / 1°32'45"W

OS Eastings: 431027.260661

OS Northings: 271722.210139

OS Grid: SP310717

Mapcode National: GBR 5LL.5Y2

Mapcode Global: VHBXB.5C1X

Entry Name: Roman settlement at Glasshouse Wood

Scheduled Date: 25 June 1973

Last Amended: 18 November 2015

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1005723

English Heritage Legacy ID: WA 167

County: Warwickshire

Civil Parish: Kenilworth

Built-Up Area: Kenilworth

Traditional County: Warwickshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Warwickshire

Church of England Parish: Ashow Assumption of our Lady

Church of England Diocese: Coventry

Summary

A Romano-British settlement dating from the C1 to the C4 with later evidence of medieval woodland management and post medieval glass working.

Source: Historic England

Details

PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS: located on an eastward-facing slope in Avon Valley is the site of a Romano-British villa which occupies a terrace, surviving as a series of buried archaeological remains and associated earthworks. Limited excavation in the 1970s, revealed evidence for a Romano-British settlement from the mid- to late-C1 until the late 3rd/early 4thC,. Evidence of timber structures, which were later replaced by stone buildings was found along with quantities of pottery, tile and a single cremation burial.

The remains of the medieval and post-medieval glassworks are located within the northern western part of Glasshouse Wood and are unexcavated.

DETAILS: from the evidence recovered during excavation on the site, it appears that there were two primary phases of occupation: the earliest represented by timber buildings with tile roofs and associated with domestic pottery and tile of the mid- to late-C1. These timber buildings were replaced in the early C2 by stone buildings, with packed gravel or clay floors and wattle and daub room partitions, arranged around at least two sides of a yard. The site was abandoned in the late C3/early C4. Finds from the excavation included a range of domestic pottery including common grey and black burnished wares along with more prestigious Samian ware. A single cremation burial, accompanied by a denarius (coin) of Nero (68AD) was also discovered. . As the intention of the excavations was to confirm the nature and extent of the archaeological remains in the area, excavation was generally limited to the later phases of occupation.

There are a series of earthworks comprising the remains of banks, ditches and lynchets. Although unexcavated, the lynchets are comparable in form to those found at other Romano-British sites and are believed to be contemporary with the villa. The banks and ditches are also undated but are believed to represent woodland and land boundaries relating to the Roman and medieval occupation and use of the area.

The remains of a medieval and post medieval glassworks also survive within the north western part of Glasshouse Woods. Partial excavation (unpublished) confirmed the presence of evidence for coal-fired glass production in the area. Further evidence is believed to survive as buried features and associated earthworks.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The Romano-British settlement at Glasshouse Wood is scheduled for the following principal reasons:
* Survival: a good example of a Romano-British settlement that survives well in the form of earthworks and buried archaeological features;
* Potential: limited archaeological investigation has determined that it retains valuable information relating to the development the settlement and this will also facilitate further studies of Romano-British settlement patterns and land use in the area more generally;
* National and regional significance: evidence for post medieval glass working from the site will contribute considerably to the study of this industry.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Willacy, , Wallwork, , 'Exploratory Excavations at a Romano-British site in Glasshouse Wood, Kenilworth, 1971' in Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society, , Vol. 88, (1976-77), pp. 71-81

Source: Historic England

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