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Eastmore, barrow 390m NNE of

A Scheduled Monument in Clydesdale North, South Lanarkshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.6862 / 55°41'10"N

Longitude: -3.8092 / 3°48'32"W

OS Eastings: 286355

OS Northings: 645122

OS Grid: NS863451

Mapcode National: GBR 12VP.3G

Mapcode Global: WH5SJ.GBBQ

Entry Name: Eastmore, barrow 390m NNE of

Scheduled Date: 26 June 2018

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Source ID: SM13694

Schedule Class: Cultural

Category: Prehistoric ritual and funerary: barrow

Location: Lanark

County: South Lanarkshire

Electoral Ward: Clydesdale North

Traditional County: Lanarkshire

Description

The monument is a barrow, a prehistoric burial monument likely to date to the 2nd millennium BC (Bronze Age). It consists of a large earth covered mound on a natural platform above the modern A73 road at 190m OD.

The barrow survives as a large tree covered earth and stone mound which lies on a natural platform above the modern A73. The barrow measures around 37m in diameter, although the western side is slightly truncated as a result of landscaping during road improvements in the recent past. The mound stands to a height of around 5m. It appears to have been landscaped, probably to accommodate tree planting in the later 18th or early 19th centuries. An area measuring 13m in diameter has been created on the top of the mound which has been planted with a circle of trees, and there is evidence of a terrace created on the east side at around 2.5m in height. A short section of kerbing has been exposed by erosion on the south side of the barrow.

The scheduled area is a clipped circle on plan to include the remains described above and an area around them within which evidence relating to the monument's construction, use and abandonment is expected to survive, as shown in red on the accompanying map. The scheduling specifically excludes the modern post and wire fence on its west side to allow for its maintenance.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Statement of Scheduling

Cultural Significance

The cultural significance of the monument has been assessed as follows:

Intrinsic Characteristics

The monument is a well preserved example of a prehistoric burial monument; earthen barrows are a characteristic form of Bronze Age monument in Scotland. The barrow survives as a flat topped conical mound. In form and size it is comparable with other sites identified as Bronze Age barrows such as Balnaguard, Perth and Kinross (scheduled monument SM2232, Canmore ID 26351), Edenwood, Fife (scheduled monument SM4761 & SM4762, Canmore ID 31517 & 31518) and Fairy Knowe, Stirling (scheduled monument SM2543, Canmore ID 45986). As a barrow the monument is likely to contain one or more burials or cremations.

The barrow has indications that it has been landscaped and has been deliberately planted with trees, probably in the later 18th or early 19th centuries to form a landscape feature. This is likely to be connected with the Designed Landscape at nearby Lee Castle which seems to have been extended/ altered in the early 19th century. The levelling of the summit of the barrow may, however, date to an earlier period when there was a 'cross' on a mound depicted near to this location on General Roy's Military Survey (1747-55). The function and date of this cross are not known.

Given the good level of preservation, there is a high potential for the survival of human remains, associated grave goods and environmental or palaeobotanical remains. Such archaeological deposits can help us to better understand beliefs surrounding death and burial in the Bronze Age, as well as funerary rites and practices, trade and contacts, social organisation and the climate and local vegetation at the time of construction. These deposits can help us understand more about the practice and significance of burial and commemoration of the dead at specific times in prehistory. There is also good potential for the survival of secondary or 'satellite' burials and related archaeological evidence for funerary pyres or other funerary activity in the area surrounding the barrow.

Excavation of similar large barrows have also demonstrated a complex construction sequence to create the final structure. Such evidence indicates not only how such a structure was built, but in some cases how it was used as a place of internment. The section of exposed stone kerb may be a construction feature of this mound.

Contextual Characteristics

This monument is a well preserved and upstanding example of a barrow, an uncommon monument type in Scotland. There are few other examples in South Lanarkshire; the closest is Auchenglen, cairn 450m SSE of (scheduled monument SM11235, Canmore ID 46546) which is 2.3km to the northwest and Blackhall Farm (scheduled monument SM4529, Canmore ID46674) 3.7km to the southwest. Neither of these examples is as large as this monument, however, similar larger barrows exist elsewhere in Scotland. These include the excavated example at North Mains, Strathallan, Perth and Kinross (scheduled monument SM7735, Canmore ID 26005). North Mains no longer survives as an upstanding monument, but was of a very similar shape and size to the barrow at Eastmore and the evidence for its excavation demonstrates the archaeological potential of similar sites. Other examples of upstanding large barrows include an example near Blairdrummond, (scheduled monument SM6555, Canmore ID 46065) and Court Hill, Loak (scheduled monument SM1524, Canmore ID 27025).  Such large and well preserved examples are uncommon, adding to the significance of the barrow at Eastmore.

The barrow is in an improved pasture field located on the east side of a dry valley, on a natural platform on steeply sloping ground above the Burgh Wood. The barrow is overlooked to the north and east by higher land and does not appear to have been located to be visually prominent, except from higher ground to the west and south along what is now the Nemphlar Moor Road.

Associative Characteristics

There are no known associative characteristics connected with this monument.

Statement of National Importance

The monument is of national importance as a prehistoric barrow which can make a significant addition to our understanding of the past, particularly the design and construction of burial monuments, the nature of burial practices, and their significance in Bronze Age and later society. The barrow is particularly important as it appears to be a well-preserved, rare type of burial monument in lowland Scotland and as such adds to our understanding of differing forms of burial monument and ritual and funerary practices during the Bronze Age. The monument contributes to our understanding of the form, function and distribution of Bronze Age burial monuments, which are an important element in our understanding of the nature of Scotland's prehistoric landscape. Because of the rarity of upstanding barrows of this scale, the loss of this monument would significantly diminish our ability to appreciate and understand the placing of such monuments within the landscape and the meaning and importance of death and burial in prehistory.

 

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Sources

Bibliography

Ashmore P J 1996. Neolithic and Bronze Age Scotland. Batsford: London.

Barclay, G J 1983. "Sites of the third millennium BC to the first millennium AD at North Mains, Strathallan, Perthshire in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Vol. 113 pp 122-281: http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDS/archiveDownload?t=arch-352-1/dissemination/pdf/vol_113/113_122_281.pdf

Brophy, K 2010. "… a place where they tried their criminals": Neolithic Round Mounds in Perth and Kinross. In Round Mounds and Monumentality in the British Neolithic and Beyond. pp10-27. Oxbow Books

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

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