Ancient Monuments

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Pumpsaint Roman Fort

A Scheduled Monument in Cynwyl Gaeo, Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin)

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Latitude: 52.0472 / 52°2'50"N

Longitude: -3.9606 / 3°57'38"W

OS Eastings: 265645

OS Northings: 240573

OS Grid: SN656405

Mapcode National: GBR DX.F47M

Mapcode Global: VH4H5.9SKZ

Entry Name: Pumpsaint Roman Fort

Scheduled Date: 12 November 1979

Source: Cadw

Source ID: 2168

Cadw Legacy ID: CM226

Schedule Class: Defence

Category: Fort

Period: Roman

County: Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin)

Community: Cynwyl Gaeo

Traditional County: Carmarthenshire


The monument comprises buried features and earthworks representing a Roman fort. The primary Roman fort network was designed and constructed by the Roman army for the purpose of military conquest and rule. The fort, originally probably measuring c.150m x 125m, and enclosing 1.9ha, was founded in the mid AD 70s, and was reduced in size to c.0.9ha c. AD 100, before apparently being abandoned by the AD 120s, a fairly typical chronological range. The fort may have had a special function in relation to the nearby Dolaucothi gold mines. Excavations within the fort, west of the main A482 both north and south of the Dolaucothi Arms, have revealed a number of phases of internal buildings, including a granary, as well as a well/cistern, and a burnt timber structure in a 2m-deep pit which was dated to the later 3rd or early 4th century AD, raising interesting questions about the nature of later Roman occupation on the site, traces of which are otherwise extremely elusive. Geophysical survey in unexcavated areas suggests that further structures, including a probable bath house on the eastern outskirts, remain to be found here.

The monument is of national importance for its potential to enhance our knowledge of Roman military organisation. The monument forms an important element within the wider context of the Roman occupation of Wales and the structures may contain well preserved archaeological evidence concerning chronology, layout and building techniques.

The scheduled area comprises the remains described and areas around them within which related evidence may be expected to survive.

Source: Cadw

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