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Latitude: 51.6209 / 51°37'15"N
Longitude: -2.9515 / 2°57'5"W
OS Eastings: 334220
OS Northings: 191767
OS Grid: ST342917
Mapcode National: GBR J7.949B
Mapcode Global: VH7B6.SJH9
Entry Name: Penrhos Camp (civil war earthworks)
Source ID: 3827
Cadw Legacy ID: MM011
Schedule Class: Defence
Period: Post Medieval/Modern
County: Newport (Casnewydd)
Community: Caerleon (Caerllion)
Traditional County: Monmouthshire
The monument consists of the remains of a substantial 17th century artillery fort located on a rounded promontory of land above the Afon Llwyd. It is located on a gentle SW facing slope with extensive views along the valleys of the Afon Llwyd and the River Usk and was well sited to command several routes north out of Caerleon. The fort is roughly 150m squares with five projecting bastions now traceable, one each on the N and S sides with flanks perpendicular to the curtain, and three angle bastions set obliquely to the corners. One of the bastions, on the S side, has been nearly ploughed away, but all were probably originally diamond shaped in plan. The surviving bastions comprise large mounds with flat tops, now all largely tree covered. Some sections of bank survive between the bastions, particularly on the NW side where the bank and the ditch can be easily traced. The present farmhouse occupies the north-west corner of the earthworks and incorporates some early or mid-17th century fabric. The fort is not mentioned in surviving contemporary documents but Penrhos was occupied by the Royalist Morgans of Llantarnam during the Civil War. It had been acquired from the Williams family in 1600 and it may be significant that Sir Roger Williams (d1595) was a celebrated career soldier who had served extensively throughout Europe, including the Low Countries and later published a military manual.
The monument is of national importance for its potential to enhance our knowledge of Civil War artillery fortifications. It is an unusual example of an isolated fort associated with a relatively minor house and may reflect an initiative or preference of its owner. It retains significant archaeological potential, with a strong probability of the presence of associated archaeological features and deposits.
The scheduled area comprises the remains described and areas around them within which related evidence may be expected to survive.
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