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Caerleon Legionary Fortress: Grounds of St Cadoc's Home

A Scheduled Monument in Caerleon (Caerllion), Newport (Casnewydd)

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.6123 / 51°36'44"N

Longitude: -2.9554 / 2°57'19"W

OS Eastings: 333944

OS Northings: 190815

OS Grid: ST339908

Mapcode National: GBR J7.9PB6

Mapcode Global: VH7B6.QQHW

Entry Name: Caerleon Legionary Fortress: Grounds of St Cadoc's Home

Scheduled Date: 28 January 1974

Source: Cadw

Source ID: 3307

Cadw Legacy ID: MM235

Schedule Class: Defence

Category: Legionary fortress

Period: Roman

County: Newport (Casnewydd)

Community: Caerleon (Caerllion)

Built-Up Area: Caerleon

Traditional County: Monmouthshire

Description

The monument comprises buried features and earthworks representing part of a Roman legionary fortress. The fortress at Caerleon, or Isca, is one of only three permanent legionary fortresses in Britain and was founded around AD75. Its construction was probably linked to the campaigns of the Governor of Britannia, Julius Frontinus, against the Silures. The fortress was home to the 2nd Augusta Legion, a legion of over 500 men. The site of the fortress was chosen for its position on gently rising ground adjacent to the river Usk at a point where it could be bridged but was also accessible to sea-going ships, and on the road between Wroxeter, Gloucester and Carmarthen. The fortress covered an area of 50 acres and conformed to the standard playing card design, had a gated entrance in the middle of each side and was divided into insulae, or blocks, by a network of roads. The fortress was in use by the 2nd Augusta Legion until around AD300 after which it continued to be partly occupied although there is no clear evidence to determine whether the occupation was military or civilian.

The scheduled area covers one insula on the E side of the fortress and a section of the NE defences including an interval tower. The site has not been excavated or subject to geophysical survey but is thought to be the location of workshops or granaries.

The monument is of national importance for its potential to enhance our knowledge of Roman military organisation. The monument forms an important element within the wider context of the Roman occupation of Wales and the structures may contain well preserved archaeological evidence concerning chronology, layout and building techniques.

The scheduled areas comprises the remains described and areas around them within which related evidence may be expected to survive.

Source: Cadw

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