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Oakwood, Roman fort and camp SSE of

A Scheduled Monument in Selkirkshire, Scottish Borders

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Latitude: 55.5183 / 55°31'5"N

Longitude: -2.9124 / 2°54'44"W

OS Eastings: 342488

OS Northings: 625330

OS Grid: NT424253

Mapcode National: GBR 843M.8N

Mapcode Global: WH7X0.7KDF

Entry Name: Oakwood, Roman fort and camp SSE of

Scheduled Date: 24 May 1955

Last Amended: 23 February 1998

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Source ID: SM1726

Schedule Class: Cultural

Category: Roman: camp

Location: Selkirk

County: Scottish Borders

Electoral Ward: Selkirkshire

Traditional County: Selkirkshire


The monument comprises a Roman fort and temporary camp. It is being rescheduled to ensure adequate protection is given to the archaeological remains; the original scheduling documents were based on inadequate plans of the monument which have now been superseded by modern mapping.

The fort lies in pasture at around 220-250m OD, while the camp lies in arable farmland at around 225-245m OD. Excavations have shown that the fort dates from c.AD 80-100, and appears to have two structural phases. The earlier fort was square, covering an area of about 3.5 acres, and had a turf rampart with double ditch. There was a gate in each side of unusual form, the gate being set back from the rampart at the end of a funnel-shaped passage, with twin portals and square flanking towers. In the second phase, the layout of the fort remained the same but the ramparts were refaced with clay, the roads were resurfaced, and the W gate was strengthened. There is an annexe on the S of the fort, about 0.5ha in size and defended by a single rampart and ditch, which appears to be secondary. The fort has been partially ploughed down, and the ramparts of the annexe now survive as low mounds, while the ditches are nowhere deeper than about 0.5m. Some 140m N of the fort, there is a temporary camp, which covers an area of about 12.5ha. The rampart was built of puddled clay with a ditch and counterscarp bank. There was a gate in each side of the camp protected by double claviculae. The bank and ditch of the camp can still be traced in its NE corner but the rest of the defences have been ploughed down and will now only survive below ground.

The area to be scheduled comprises the remains described and an area around them within which related material may be expected to survive. It is divided into two areas of unequal size. The area to the S is rectangular, measuring 300m NNE-SSW by 250m transversely, and the area to the N is sub-rectangular, measuring 550m N-S by 420m transversely, as marked in red on the accompanying map extract.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

Statement of Scheduling

The monument is of national importance because of its potential to contribute to our understanding of the Roman military campaigns in Scotland in the 1st century AD. The fort was founded at the time of Agricola's advance northwards about AD 81, and would have been in direct communication with the fort at Newstead by means of the signal-post on the summit of Eildon Hill North. It was abandoned in AD 100 when Roman troops in Scotland were withdrawn to the Tyne-Solway line. Due to its close proximity to the fort, the Roman camp to the north may have housed the labour force employed in the fort's construction.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland



The monument is recorded in the RCAHMS as NT 42 NW 12, and NT 42 SW 1.

Source: Historic Environment Scotland

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