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Standing cross 180m north of Hall Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Thornton-le-Dale, North Yorkshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.2361 / 54°14'10"N

Longitude: -0.7216 / 0°43'17"W

OS Eastings: 483417.880139

OS Northings: 483023.292075

OS Grid: SE834830

Mapcode National: GBR RMDG.K7

Mapcode Global: WHF9X.WSJD

Entry Name: Standing cross 180m north of Hall Farm

Scheduled Date: 22 June 2004

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1021266

English Heritage Legacy ID: 35562

County: North Yorkshire

Civil Parish: Thornton-le-Dale

Built-Up Area: Thornton-le-Dale

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): North Yorkshire

Details

The monument includes a stepped stone cross, of limestone, raised upon a
flight of six stone steps, square in plan, surmounted by a square,
chamfered pedestal (0.71 sq m). The tapering shaft is approximately
0.20 sq m with chamfered corners, extending to its full height of 2.80m. A
plain chamfered block tops the shaft. The elements of the cross all appear
to be original, probably dating from the 15th century. The cross is Listed
Grade II. Adjacent to the cross is a pair of wooden stocks that are also
included in the scheduling.

The metal railing and signpost are excluded from the scheduling, although
the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The standing cross 180m north of Hall Farm is a well-preserved example of
this class of monument. Despite some weathering, this is a good example in
a prominent roadside position. The stocks are also a good example of the
type.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of the County of North Riding of Yorkshire, (1923), 492
Other
Title: Ordnance Survey 6" Map, Yorkshire, sheet 91
Source Date: 1854
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Source: Historic England

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