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Round 340m north west of Tresawle Farm

A Scheduled Monument in St. Columb Major, Cornwall

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.4381 / 50°26'17"N

Longitude: -4.9701 / 4°58'12"W

OS Eastings: 189190.11824

OS Northings: 64022.255511

OS Grid: SW891640

Mapcode National: GBR ZK.JKPF

Mapcode Global: FRA 07GW.ZG9

Entry Name: Round 340m north west of Tresawle Farm

Scheduled Date: 28 January 2003

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1020864

English Heritage Legacy ID: 32969

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: St. Columb Major

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: St Columb Major

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The scheduling includes a round of the later prehistoric to Roman period,
situated on a moderate north east slope on the crest of a hill west of
St Columb Major. This site is associated with other comparable enclosures
nearby.
The round is sub-circular in plan, measuring approximately 90m east-west
by 80m north-south overall. It has an enclosing rampart and external
ditch, modified by ploughing. The rampart is spread to form a bank of
earth and small stones approximately 12m wide, very low around its inner
side but 0.3m-0.5m high on the outside. The ditch is visible on the south
side of the round as a slight depression 6m wide. By analogy with similar
monuments elsewhere, the ditch continues around the whole of the rampart,
the remainder being buried. The interior of the round slopes gently with
the natural gradient but is a little higher than the surrounding ground,
and is slightly concave. This is one of several rounds to survive in the
vicinity.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types
dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually
circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch,
with one entrance breaking the circuit.
Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or
cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf
or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner
edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies,
pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been
recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the
domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated
with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming
an additional enclosure.
Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of
farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th
century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in
areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon
and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most
recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs.
Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement
and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west
England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally
be considered to be of national importance.

Despite modification of its enclosing bank and partial filling of its
external ditch, the round 340m north west of Tresawle Farm survives
comparatively well. The underlying old land surface, and remains of any
structures or other deposits associated with this and with the upstanding
earthworks and ditch, will also survive. The association with other rounds
nearby will contribute to our understanding of the social and economic
organisation of the farming landscape of this region in the later
prehistoric to Roman periods.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Page, W, The Victoria History of the County of Cornwall: Volume I, (1906), 468
Polwhele, R, History of Cornwall, (1803), 108
Other
Dyer, CA, Cornwall Mapping Project, (1999)
MS at RIC library, Truro, Henderson, C, Parochial Antiquities of Cornwall, Parochial Antiquities of Cornwall, (1920)
PRN 22140, Cornwall SMR, (1997)
SW 86 NE, Fletcher, MJ, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1971)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1880
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map
Source Date: 1908
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:

Title: St Columb Major Tithe Apportionment Map
Source Date: 1840
Author:
Publisher:
Surveyor:
1036

Source: Historic England

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